(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The New England Glass Company, 1818-1888"






NEW ENGLAND GLASS C0MFAN7 • TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART 








Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Toledo Museum of Art 



http://archive.org/details/newenglandglasscOOtole 



THE NEW ENGLAND GLASS COMPANY 

1818-1388 



THE TOLEDO MUSEUM OF AST 

FOUNDED BY EDWARD DRUMMOND LIBBEY 

1003 



OFFICERS 

Harry E. Collin, President 

Harold Boeschenstein, Vice-President 

J. P. Levis, Vice-President 

Blake-More Godwin, Vice-President 

W. Sinclair Walbridge, Secretary 

Richard R. Johnston, Treasurer 

Otto Wittmann, Director 



TRUSTEES 

John D. Biggers 

Harold Boeschenstein 

Ward M. Canaday 

Harry E. Collin 

John K. Davis 

Howard P. DeVilbiss 

William C. Draper 

LeRoy E. Eastman 

Blake-More Godwin 

Richard R. Johnston 

George M. Jones, Jr. 

Frank L. Kloeb 

Milton Knight 

Robert G. Landers 

J. P. Levis 

George P. MacNichol, Jr. 

Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 

Roy Rike 

George W. Ritter 

W. Sinclair Walbridge 

Ford R. Weber 

Otto Wittmann 



HONORARY TRUSTEES 
The Most Rev. Karl J. Alter 
Ralph E. Carpenter 
James P. Falvey 
Edgar F. Kaiser 
William W. Knight 
Marvin S. Kobacker 
Jules D. Lippmann 
John E. Martin 
Carroll L. Proctor 
Frank D. Stranahan 



FOREWORD 



The very foundation of this Museum is glass. Founded in 1901 by Edward Drummond 
Libbey, who had brought the glass industry to Toledo in 1888 only thirteen years before, the 
Museum could not long have survived had not the glass industry continued to grow and to 
prosper. 

The growth of our community, the growth of the glass industry, the growth of this 
Museum all closely parallel one another and are interrelated. Mr. Libbey and his associates 
and successors guided the development of The Toledo Museum of Art simultaneously with 
the development of the successful glass industry. Throughout his business career, Mr. Lib- 
bey's leadership of his business was concurrent with his guidance of this Museum as its Presi- 
dent from 1901 to his death in 1925. His business travels were often combined with suc- 
cessful search for works of art such as the Museum's great Holbein, its Rembrandt, Velas- 
quez and Manet, as well as the nucleus of its collection of ancient glass. 

The estates of Mr. and Mrs. Libbey still represent the Museum's largest single source 
of income, and have enabled the Museum to increase its art collections which now rank high 
among the nation's museums. 

Before bringing the glass industry to Toledo in 1888, Mr. Libbey had been president 
of the New England Glass Company of East Cambridge, Massachusetts, having succeeded his 



father William L. Libbey in this position. The New England Glass Company, from 1818 to 1888 
when it ceased operation, had enjoyed seventy years of continuous operation. Indeed, 
among the great number of American glass factories making fine tableware in the 19th 
century, this Company was the undisputed leader. It had the longest continuous operation of 
any glass factory in a century when the whole industry was marked by severe and constantly re- 
curring financial crises. The handsome tableware produced by this factory set the style which 
others followed, and the infinite variety of shapes, colors, patterns and techniques, attest 
the vigor of this pace-setting Company. 

Before the research of Mrs. Lura Woodside Watkins was published in her book Cam- 
bridge Glass, in 1930, little was known of the New England Glass Company. Until now no 
major exhibition has ever been devoted to this factory's glass. Many of the objects in this 
exhibition are attributed through glass of known dates, family histories, trademarks, and 
on the basis of aesthetic consideration. The research of others who have studied the glass 
of the Company has been carefully reviewed and their findings incorporated where applicable. 

In the organization of this exhibition, over 1,000 glass objects associated with the New 
England Glass Company were studied. From this number, 273 objects of exceptionally high 
quality were chosen to represent the Company's seventy year history. These objects were 
lent by nineteen private collectors and twelve museums. 

We are indebted to many generous owners and to our colleagues in American museums 
for allowing us to borrow their rare, fragile and precious glass for this exhibition. 

Millard F. Rogers, Jr., Assistant Curator of this Museum, is responsible for this cata- 
logue and for the research which made it possible. To him and to other members of our 
staff who have worked with him on the exhibition, goes credit for this contribution to the 
history of American glass. 

Otto Wittmann, Director 
November, 1963 



4 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND LENDERS 



An exhibition of this sort rests on the generosity of many lenders — private collectors 
and public museums. Without their willingness to have their glass studied, catalogued, and 
exhibited, such an exhibition would not be possible. All of the lenders have volunteered in- 
teresting comments and worthwhile historical notes on the glass in their collections. The 
author is grateful for these comments which have been incorporated in the text of catalogue 
entries where possible. For the acts of hospitality and kindness shown during the preparation 
of this exhibition, the author expresses his thanks. Many individuals — private collectors, 
dealers, museum curators, and students — have given advice and suggestions during the 
months of work on this exhibition, and to them the Museum is profoundly grateful. 

For the objects lent to this exhibition, The Toledo Museum of Art is indebted to the 
following lenders: 

Mrs. Peter D. Alden; Mr. George Austin; Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker; Mr. Preston R. Bas- 
sett; Mrs. E. M. Belknap; The Bennington Museum, Bennington, Vermont; The John Nelson Berg- 
strom Art Center, Neenah, Wisconsin; Miss Martha Hall Bliss; The Museum of Fine Arts, Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts; The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York; The Art Institute of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois; The Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, New York; Mrs. Harold G. Duck- 
worth; Mr. William J. Elsholz; Mrs. Louise S. Esterly; Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell; The Henry 
Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan; Mr. Charles B. Gardner; Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones; The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York; Mrs. Grace R. Miller; L. W. and D. B. 
Neal; Miss Marion H. Pike; Mr. James H. Rose; Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Sampson; Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman; Old Sturbridge 
Village, Sturbridge, Massachusetts; The Henry Francis Dupont Winterthur Museum, Winter- 
thur, Delaware; Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 




Show room of The New England Glass Company, from Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, 

January 20, 1855. 



BISTORT 

of the 

NEW ENGLAND 

GLASS 

COMPANY 



1818-1888 



"The traveler who approaches Boston by the Maine, Fitchburg or Lowell railroads, as 
he draws near to the great metropolis of New England, among the many prominent objects 
which arrest his attention, cannot fail to notice with surprise, in the direction of East Cam- 
bridge a brick chimney, which towers up into the air at an astounding height, exceeding that 
of Bunker Hill Monument. A near view shows that it rises from a mass of buildings occupy- 
ing a vast area of ground, indicating that an extensive business is carried on within. This 
chimney and these buildings are those of the New England Glass Company's works. . ." 
(Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, January 20, 1855.) Today's traveler finds 
nothing remaining of America's greatest glass works. By 1921, the buildings were torn 
down and the great chimney demolished. 

The history of the New England Glass Company is an important one, spanning seventy 
years between 1818 and 1888. When it finally closed its furnaces and ceased operations as 
the New England Glass Company, it had experienced all of the 19th century's technological 
developments and improvements of glassmaking in the production of fine tableware. 

Glassmaking was one of America's earliest industries. In the first years of the 19th 
century, although many factories had expired after a brief life cycle, a large number of 
glass factories were established. By 1818, when the New England Glass Company began 
operations, about forty glass houses were functioning in America. Of this number, most 
specialized in producing window glass, not tableware, a trend that was reversed as the 
century progressed. By 1900 the number of glass houses had increased remarkably, yet in- 
dividual factories still employed small numbers of workers and were not major manufactur- 
ing complexes. An exception was the New England Glass Company, a giant among glass 
houses, employing hundreds of workers and having a substantial sales record until it closed 
in 1888. 

The War of 1812 and the blockade of America's ports by the British encouraged manu- 
facturing in this country. A strong domestic glass industry emerged thereafter. Most of the 
sprouting glass houses concentrated on production of crown glass for windows, not fine 
tableware. Peace was concluded by the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, and in spite of the finan- 
cial depression that closed many glass houses, a prosperous period for the economy began 
about 1820. The young New England Glass Company, therefore, rode the crest of the wave 
as a glass manufacturer. The Company was fortunate that it could move into buildings 
already equipped by the original owner for glassmaking. 

In 1800, America had no glass house specializing in fine tableware, but by 1820 five 
factories devoted themselves to this specialty. Twenty-five more glass houses began opera- 




The New England Glass Company, from Gleason's Pictorial, December 6, 1851. 



tion by 1840. The market for lead glass was a strong one, prospering until lime glass was 
introduced in 1864. 

Glassmaking in New England involved few factories and shops before 1800, but the 
Boston area was not without representation in the glass industry before this date. The New 
England Glass Company's indirect ancestor was the Boston Crown Glass Company of South 
Boston, Massachusetts, a firm organized in the late 18th century. This glass house is cre- 
dited with the introduction of lead glass to the North Atlantic states. Several workers from 
this factory left in 1815 to operate a glass house in Cambridge, which was incorporated on 
February 14, 1814, and constructed on land acquired at Craigie's Point or Lechmere Point 
in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This firm, the Boston Porcelain and Glass Company, pro- 
duced fine glass but closed operations by 1817. 

In November, 1817, the land and factory were sold at auction, as the enterprise was 
an economic failure. Factory and ground were purchased by a group of men, Amos Binney, 
Edmund Monroe, Daniel Hastings and Deming Jarves, who incorporated as the New Eng- 
land Glass Company on February 16, 1818. Their charter stated that they could manufacture 
"flint and crown glass of all kinds in the towns of Boston and Cambridge." 

The New England Glass Company was fortunate to have capable superintendents, agents, 
and workers during their seventy year history. The first agent, or general manager, was 
Deming Jarves (1790-1856), a Boston business man who controlled a vital American monop- 
oly on the production of red lead (litharge) essential for fine lead glass. For thirty years, 
Jarves monopolized the red lead market in America, supplying it to other glass houses. This 
production of red lead permitted the New England Glass Company to compete with foreign fac- 
tories who previously had the lead market practically to themselves. 

In 1826, Jarves left the Company and founded the Boston and Sandwich Glass Com- 
pany in Sandwich, Massachusetts. He was involved successfully with pressing machines, 
new furnace designs, color experiments, mold construction, and the writing of an import- 
ant pamphlet, Reminiscences of Glassmaking (1854). Jarves' successors as agents for the New 
England Glass Company, and the dates they served, were: Henry Whitney, Sr. (1826-1843), 
Captain Joseph N. Howe (1844-1865), Henry Whitney, Jr. (1866-1870), and William L. Libbey 
(1870-1883). Following Libbey's death in 1883, his son, Edward Drummond Libbey, as- 
sumed control of the Company and operated it for five years. 

The development of inexpensive soda-lime glass in West Virginia during the Civil War 
marked the end of prosperity for the New England Glass Company. The value of sold prod- 
ucts dropped from $500,000 in 1865 to $232,304 in 1876. By 1874 only 200 hands were 
employed at the East Cambridge factory. A depression in 1873 furthered the difficulties. 

In April, 1874, a momentous meeting of the Company stockholders voted to cease 
operations and close the works. Certain trust funds held large blocks of stock, and one 
representative commented at this meeting: "There was no fun in carrying on this business at a 
loss, however interesting it may be to see the workmen making specimens of beautiful 
glass." New economies were proposed by William L. Libbey, and the Company struggled on 
for a few more years. 



10 



In 1877, the directors of the factory withdrew from active management of the properties 
and leased them in 1878 to William L. Libbey, who had been their agent since 1870. Wil- 
liam Libbey had been owner of Mt. Washington Glassworks in South Boston and sold his in- 
terest in this factory (which had moved to New Bedford, Massachusetts, in 1866) when 
he became agent of the New England Glass Company. His son, Edward, came to the Com- 
pany as a clerk in 1874. The firm name was changed in 1880 to New England Glass 
Company (Works), W. L. Libbey and Son, Proprietors. 

Although fine lead ware continued to be produced at the New England Glass Com- 
pany, the pure forms and integrity of the metal were submerged by whimsical decoration 
and fanciful colorings. The buying market, which ultimately determined the success or failure 
of a company, had to be satisfied. 

In 1888, Libbey's workmen had been disputing wages and hours for several years. When 
the workers were denied wages and quotas equal to those of the western glassworkers (where 
coal and other materials were much cheaper) which Libbey was unable to give them and 
remain in business, the factory was closed. Its operation moved, along with 150 workers, to 
Toledo where cheap natural gas was available for furnace fuel. Although the Company char- 
ter was not surrendered until September, 1890, the New England Glass Company operated 
no more in East Cambridge after 1888. That year marked the end of an American glass house 
— perhaps the most important one America has yet seen, certainly the outstanding factory in 
the 19th century. 

Many leaders in the American glass industry were employed by the New England Glass 
Company. Most of the workers had been involved in their craft since they were boys; some 
were trained abroad and hired directly from their European employment. The workers were 
skilled practitioners in their specialties: freehand blowing, pressing, cutting, engraving, and 
decorating. The gaffers were the most experienced, responsible workers, usually versed in 
all areas of glassmaking. 

American workers in the 19th century frequently moved from factory to factory in hopes 
of better jobs or better pay. As glass manufacturing became more competitive as the 19th 
century progressed, the ingenuity of the glass workers was taxed by increased demands 
for more variety in shapes and uses in glass articles, by higher production standards, and 
by greater economic pressures. While the Company grew and expanded its operations, it 
became departmentalized to an extent unknown in its early days. Cutting, engraving, etch- 
ing, enamelling, gilding, pressing and other techniques had their specialists. 

Small glass factories employing less than fifty workers were common for early 19th 
century glass houses, but this trend generally was reversed as the century progressed. From 
1818 throughout the succeeding seventy years of glassmaking, the New England Glass Com- 
pany grew from modest size to a complex employing hundreds of workers who were special- 
ists in their skills. A glass house the size of the New England Glass Company depended on 
very few outside manufacturers. 

The heart of the Company was its system of furnaces. The New England Glass Com- 
pany did not employ the standard European conical chimney over each major furnace after 



11 



1851. Undoubtedly the earlier furnaces were patterned after English glass furnaces with a 
separate chimney for each furnace. By 1851, the glass house had a landmark for all to mar- 
vel at — a chimney 240 feet in height, taller than the Bunker Hill Monument. Five furnaces 
of ten pots each fed into a system of flues feeding to a central flue and chimney. The fires 
were fed from the basement below the furnace level where the glassblowers worked, so that 
a measure of freedom from heat and coal dust was afforded the blowers. 

On October 24, 1874, the factory was visited by Thomas Gaffield, an important Boston dia- 
rist of the American glass industry. An entry in his Journal states: "I had an excellent oppor- 
tunity to witness the manner of constructing the furnace, as I went inside, and saw 'the eye' 
or firing place in the center, with its teaze hole or feeding place entering from the arch be- 
low; the grate bars covered with sand or clay to prevent the fire from burning too furiously 
when first heating up the furnace, which should be done gradually, the bars being cleared 
from the obstructions and openings made for draught as fast as prudence will allow; the 
sieges covered with sand to keep the pots from sticking to them; the flues near the sides 
and bottoms of the pots with circular openings of about four to six inches in diameter to 
allow the flame to play all around the pots before going off into the core above and into the 
large iron pipes which connect with the very tall chimney, which creates an immense draught." 

The number of employees in each department varied with the years, but reached the 
highest point by 1865, when about 500 men and boys were employed. The brick-floored blow- 
ing or furnace room housed the furnaces, annealing ovens, and kilns where the most import- 
ant single operation of the Company was focused. Here the gaffers and their various assist- 
ants, many of them boys, translated molten metal into formed glass. Beneath its skylighted 
roof, supported by iron columns, pressing operations were concluded also. 

In the cutting room of the New England Glass Company in 1855, ninety men were em- 
ployed. Eighty stalls for cutting wheels lined each side of this 270 foot long area, with wheels 
driven from belts attached to a shaft running the length of the room above the center aisle. 
An 80 horsepower steam engine provided the power for the cutting apparatus. 

While the machine shop and its operations were, in 1835, housed with the cutting room, 
by 1855 the laboratory building held the blacksmith, machine, and trimming shops. The 
mixing of raw ingredients for the Company's glass was done in this building, and the models 
for pressed or blown-in-mold pieces were made in the machine shop. Lantern and other 
metal fittings were produced in the trimming shop. These activities employed about fifty 
men. Packing and warehouse operations involved twenty-five men, who worked in a separate 
three-story brick building. Ornamental work, such as silvering, gilding and painting was done 
in a separate department by ten men. 

Two departments basic to the New England Glass Company's operation were the lead 
and clay rooms. The Company manufactured its own red lead or litharge from Missouri 
lead, using two and a half million tons of the material annually. Twelve men worked the 
Stourbridge clay, which was imported from England, into the pots needed to melt the raw in- 
gredients in the furnaces. Fine quality clay pots were absolutely essential to glassmaking, 
and while some manufacturers used Missouri clay for their pots, eastern makers used "Stow- 
bridge" according to Deming Jarves. 



12 




Furnaces and glassblowing room at The New England Glass Company, Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room 

Companion, January 20, 1855. 



Free Blown Glass 



Probably the most impressive glass produced by the New England Glass Company was 
the free blown ware of 1818-1850. To the gaffers must go the credit for fashioning the 
clear lead metal into highly prized examples characteristic of America's finest 19th century 
glass. Primarily, the traditions of the gaffers were those brought from England, and they dom- 
inated the factory in the first half of the 19th century. 

Glass of the Anglo-Irish factories produced in the last quarter of the 18th century and 
the first quarter of the 19th tended toward classical designs and shapes. While heavy cut- 
ting, which was typical of much Irish glass of this period, was not practised by the New 
England Glass Company in the first decades, such devices as gadrooning, fluting and shallow 
engraving were employed by them and their English predecessors and contemporaries. The 
English influence dominated glass produced at East Cambridge until about mid-century, 
when the Bohemian style expanded the Company's taste for novelty and opened the door for 
more typically 19th century styles and Victorian excesses. Apsley Pellatt (1791-1863) and 
his molded cameo portraits encased in cut glass surely influenced the Company's cameo 
portrait paperweights — so popular at the time of London's Great Exhibition in the Crystal 
Palace, 1851. Country style glass in England, of simple and unpretentious shapes and 
clear, colored, and opaque glass, was adapted for an American market by the Company. Opal 
and Venetian style latticinio glass were both produced in England prior to their production in 
this country. 

Although some primitive pressing of glass was done in English factories before the 
New England Glass Company began using this technique, the Company's improvements 
and developments of the pressing machine after 1826 reversed the trend of foreign influ- 
ences causing European factories to adopt the American method. The Company's early 
blown molded bowls, ca. 1825, suggest Anglo-Irish cut glass models. A sugar bowl of an 
exceptionally heavy gather, blown molded in a shape reminiscent of Staffordshire bowls, also 
suggests the borrowing of designs from English sources. 

Most of the early blown glass of the Company is clear lead — the typical metal. In 
comparison with South Boston or Sandwich glass the Company's pieces are usually heavier. 
Urns or presentation vases, pitchers, and coin banks are notable for their chaste use of 
trailing, gadrooning, simply knopped stems and handsome shapes. A particularly fine deep 
blue glass was made by the Company between 1818-1830, and purple and ruby were pop- 
ular colors slightly later. The Company's blue metal appears slightly grey in comparison 
with that of Sandwich. The ruby metal often was combined with clear on a single piece. 
Opalescent and opal glass became popular by mid-century. Opaque white or milk glass was 
made after 1865 with cryolite, an ingredient available commercially about 1850. The New 
England Glass Company began using cryolite about 1870. Opal glass was discussed with 
Thomas Gaffield by Deming Jarves in December, 1863. Jarves told Gaffield that three 

14 




,..--,' m. 








Glass cutting room of The New England Glass Company, from Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion 

January 20, 1855. 



shades of opal glass were produced: a deep white, called enamel; a pearl shade; and true opal, 
caused by smaller amounts of arsenic and phosphate of lime. The ruby glass for which the 
Company was well-known was based on a "simple solution of gold" added in the right propor- 
tions to colorless lead batch, according to John Leighton's description to Gaffield. Various 
recipe books kept by Company gaffers substantiate this. 

Latticinio glass made with opaque white threads arranged in compact patterns of para- 
llel and intersecting lines in clear glass is often termed "Nailsea" but was called "filigree" by 
the Company. On April 28, 1868, Gaffield visited the glass factory in Cambridge and received 
the formula and technique for making it. John Leighton told him that opaque white canes 
or threads were placed in iron molds side by side, to form a fan-like pattern. A little hot glass 
was placed with this in the mold, and a gather on a blowpipe inserted to pick up the threads. 
This was then marvered and the object blown. 

After mid-century more and more colored glass was blown, replacing almost entirely the 
clear metal characteristic of early products. Decoration in some form was added to the ob- 
jects, whereas the earlier clear glass normally remained undecorated or the clear metal it- 
self was used for applied threads and trail ings. A variety of manufacturing techniques and 
consumer demands merged the early 19th century gaffers' skill and ingenuity. Appreciation 
was directed toward colorful effects, exotic decorative techniques, and novel treatments for 
glass, expanding the range of products and styles offered by the Company. 



Cut and Engraved Glass 



Cut and engraved lead glass was produced by the New England Glass Company and 
its skilled workers for nearly three quarters of a century. The glass for cutting and engrav- 
ing was the expensive lead metal, first threatened by the cheaper soda lime glass improve- 
ment in 1864. The New England Glass Company, however, continued to produce cut glass of 
the best quality. 

Unlike the cut glass of the so-called "Brilliant" period, ca. 1890-1910, with its submer- 
gence of form and contour in an abundance of facets, diamonds, rosettes, and scallops, the 
cut portions on New England Glass Company objects were secondary to their design and 
outline. An occasional Bohemian style piece extends this definition, for deep cutting and 
faceted effects were desirable in this technique. 

Favorite cut and engraved devices in the first decades were grapes and their foliage, 
fruit in vases, faceted stems, delicately rendered landscapes and figures in intaglio, and star- 
cut bases on goblets and glasses. A superb example of New England Glass Company artistry 
in cutting, now lost and known through photographs, was the presentation vase given to 
Thomas Leighton. This piece depicted the buildings of the Company on one side and was 



16 



marked on the other: Thomas Leighton/East Cambridge/August 1843/A token of grateful re- 
membrance. It was made for Leighton's retirement from the factory. When last shown in 
Gloucester, Massachuetts, at the fourth exhibition of the National Early American Glass Club, 
1935, it was then owned by Miss Mary Leighton, descendant of Thomas, for whom the vase 
was made. 

Early recognition came to the Company's cut glass in 1824 when the Franklin Institute 
of Philadelphia held an exhibition of American manufactured goods and awarded their prod- 
ucts an "Honorary Mention". In subsequent exhibitions until 1888, when the Company closed, 
further awards were made for other variations of glass. Another "Honorary Mention" was 
awarded the Company in 1826 by the Franklin Institute's 11th exhibition. Cut glass decanters 
and cut and molded glass were given a silver medal by this same agency in 1840, and cut 
glass salts received an "Honorable Mention" in 1843. 

By 1855, when ninety men were employed as cutters at the Company, cut and en- 
graved glassware was an important and major product. The Bohemian style was popular 
in America at this time. A visitor to the Company in 1852 noted in Gleason's Pictorial: "We 
were repeatedly struck by the fact, new to us, that most of the exquisite, highly colored and 
decorated glassware, which is so much admired under the name of Bohemian glass, is manu- 
factured at these works." Certainly examples of Bohemian glass were imported before 1852, 
and some pieces in this style attributed to the Company must be European models brought 
in to copy or study. The Company's Bohemian style glass was cased or stained ruby over 
clear metal. Geometric designs, inscriptions and landscapes were cut through the outer sur- 
face exposing the clear glass beneath. Louis Vaupel and Henry Fillebrown were the Com- 
pany's best practitioners of this manner of cutting. They learned their trade in Europe and 
probably were hired specifically as artists in this technique. Occasionally, Bohemian style 
glass was gilded. Color also was painted or stained on pieces, usually in amber or ruby, an 
inexpensive substitute for cased glass. 

Elaborate cutting reached its zenith in the Company's display at the Centennial Exposi- 
tion in 1876 in Philadelphia. Most of the exhibited pieces were cut and engraved, accord- 
ing to Thomas Gaffield's description: ". . . The main counter is crowded with rare and 
charming wares. These include fruit stands, preserve and other dishes, in diamond pattern, 
many of the pieces being ornamented in addition with delicately engraved flowers and fruit 
and other exquisite designs. Next come decanters with prismatic stoppers, and tumblers to 
match. These are also very rich goods. Following these we have wine glasses and goblets of 
various styles. Some of these are engraved with charming designs of flowers, vines, et cetera, 
while others are massive and heavily cut. The latter are novelties, most of them being tulip 
shaped and of block and diamond mixed. The celery glasses in block pattern must also be 
noted for their fine workmanship. Passing to another section we find other styles of fruit 
stands and tableware. A charming fruit bowl cut in diamond and flower patterns with medal- 
lions of baskets of fruit and flowers, and the lower part encircled with a finely engraved 
wreath of flowers and vines is especially rich. A large assortment of the most fragile looking 
goblets, wines, liquors, and wine pitchers, et cetera, etched with delicate designs, and of 
the most beautiful appearance finished the side." 



17 



Art glass produced by the Company in the 1880's often was cut, engraved, or etched. 
Cameo vases, spectacular results of tedious, patient cutting of an outside layer of glass to 
form a superimposed design on a colored lower layer, were produced by Joseph Locke. He 
was trained in the Northwood tradition in England and never made more than a few cameo 
vases. 



Mold Blown Glass 



Only one year after the formation of the New England Glass Company, they produced 
blown molded glass, as indicated by an advertisement in the Boston Commercial Gazette, Octo- 
ber 4, 1819. Molded tumblers and fan end salts were listed, yet it is unknown in which type 
of mold these items were made. Probably they were fashioned in a full sized piece mold, or 
dip mold. The Company produced a variety of articles by molding between 1818-1888, util- 
izing the pattern mold (gather is shaped in a mold, withdrawn, then expanded), full size 
piece mold (gather expanded in mold for final shape), or hinge mold (gather expanded in 
mold, usually three pieces hinged together, mold taken apart, and piece lifted out). 

Much molded glass, such as the fan end salts and simply designed bowls, were in- 
tended as inexpensive imitations of cut glass, previously imported from Europe. A substan- 
tial part of England's exports to America was cut glass. It is likely that Deming Jarves en- 
couraged the Company to compete by manufacturing blown molded glassware. The Com- 
pany was never a heavy producer of blown molded glass, however, for their interest re- 
mained, at least during their first fifty years, with free blown glass. That Jarves was involved 
in blown mold production is proved by the attribution of much blown molded glass to the 
Boston and Sandwich Glass Company, which was formed by Jarves after he left the New Eng- 
land Glass Company. 

From Helen McKearin's analysis of the New England Glass Company invoices (Antiques, 
September-October-December, 1947), certain blown three mold patterns have been asso- 
ciated with the Company. These include three geometric patterns (G 1-15, G 11-10, G 11-18), 
four arch patterns (G IV-2, G IV-3, G IV-5, G IV-6) and one baroque pattern (G V-17). During 
the first decades in the Company's history, blown molded pieces are thick walled and heavy. 
Often it is difficult to feel the interior conformations to outside contours in a blown molded 
object. That some blown molded glass was produced late in the Company's history was 
noted by Thomas Gaffield in his Journal (March 9, 1875) when he went to the factory and saw 
ruby ware and "flint glass dishes blown in a mould." He stated that the molds were heated 
by a boy before the gather was inserted. This treatment gave the glass some fire polish, 
he thought. 



18 



Early Pressed Glass 



In the years following 1818, the New England Glass Company was interested in the 
pressing of glass in molds. Did the Company develop an entirely new technique that, with 
improvements, would revolutionize glassmaking? Or did the Company begin production with 
pressed glass at an opportune moment economically in American glass history? Probably the 
factory was involved in each case, at least to some extent. 

Deming Jarves certainly explored the technique of pressed glass while associated with 
the New England Glass Company (1818-1825) as its first agent. He did not claim for America 
the invention of pressing glass in molds, but he stated that: "America can claim the credit of 
great improvements in the needful machinery which has advanced the art to its present 
perfection." 

Apparently some pressing was done at the Company by 1819, when an advertisement, 
discovered by Lura W. Watkins, indicates that "prest" bottles and flasks were available for 
purchase. These may, however, have been molded articles. Pressed stoppers are listed in 
an 1820 advertisement, and those were produced in a simple, hinged two-part mold. 

James Magoun, the foreman of the pressing department at the Company in the 1840's, 
held several patents for pressing glass and is best known today for the patent that elim- 
inated obvious mold marks. Enoch Robinson and Henry Whitney were issued a patent for 
pressing knobs in 1826, and by 1827 Robinson had produced other articles, including a salt 
cellar, by pressing. 

Pressed glass was produced throughout the Company's existence, a seventy year period 
spanning lacy through pattern developments. It is known today that all lacy glass is not Sand- 
wich. Several factories including the New England Glass Company produced this pressed, 
stippled ware between 1825-1850. Included in the Company's production — and pressing 
properly could be called that, for it was more mechanized than other glassmaking pro- 
cesses and a manifestation of the Industrial Revolution — were salt cellars, lamps, dishes, 
bowls, cup plates, knobs, sugar bowls, creamers, and vases. The New England Glass Com- 
pany maintained its own mold making department and there the intricate designs were fash- 
ioned. Some designs were pirated or borrowed from other factories, copied from porcelains 
and books, or invented by the mold maker himself. As the New England Glass Company was 
a large factory and had a mold department, surely they furnished designs or molds to other 
factories. The exchange of designs in American' glass factories in the 19th century was ex- 
tensive, creating a problem in attribution never to be completely solved. 

The New England Glass Company was pressing cup plates by May, 1829, according to 
the invoices of that factory, which have been discussed by Helen McKearin in Antiques arti- 
cles. Also noted in the invoices were bulb lamps with cup plate bases. While positive at- 
tribution to the New England Glass Company is impossible for any single cup plate, over 50 



19 



cup plates are presently associated with this company. One notable contribution of the New 
England Glass Company cup plate manufacturing was their invention of the wide cap ring 
(about 1829) which corrected the problem of variable thickness in plates from the same 
mold. 

Pressed cup plates were adapted easily as bases for small whale oil lamps. Usually 
such lamps had a tiny font attached to the plate by a knop stem or wafer. The thicker, ear- 
lier plates appear most often on such lamps. 

Pressed glass salt cellars were made by several companies in New England between 
1825-1840. Most of these are rectangular troughs, about 3 inches in length, with a wide range 
of patterns on their surfaces. Fifteen salt cellars have been attributed to the New England 
Glass Company, and some of these are marked objects with the Company's name and loca- 
tion on the bases. The Company's patterns are simple, broad motifs and rather plain back- 
grounds. Over-elaborate lacy effects were never appreciated by the factory, apparently, in 
manufacturing such pressed glass tableware. 



Blown and Pressed Lamps 



The earliest lamps with closed reservoirs were introduced about 1800 to America from 
England. Before this date, candles set in sticks or holders, or float-type lamps, were used. 
Glass lamps using closed reservoirs were major products of American glass factories in the 
19th century, and the New England Glass Company was a leader in their production. Such 
lamps of glass comprise a separate category in one's study of the New England Glass Com- 
pany because of the great variety in their fashioning and decorating. 

The first glass lamps probably were the peg type, a reservoir on a short stem which 
could be inserted in a candlestick or other holder. William Leighton acquired a patent in 1839 
for making the peg and font in one operation. The Company advertised peg lamps in the 
1820's, and they soon began producing stand or saucer lamps, employing a reservoir on a 
short knopped stem which was applied to a saucer-like base. The ingenious use of one ob- 
ject, a cup plate, combined with a font, devised a lamp with a cup plate base. These were 
made about 1820-1840. 

The Company made particularly good use of the pressing technique and usually com- 
bined it with free blowing. Square, stepped bases of pressed glass supported blown fonts, 
wafers, and shades in certain lamps made by the Company between 1830-1850. Perhaps 
the most notable combination of pressed and blown portions of glass to form a lamp oc- 
curred in the lion-head base lamps with blown fonts and shades which were offered for 
sale by the Company in 1829. Inside the base a Company mark may be seen in some lamps 
of that design, while others without the mark may have been made competitively, perhaps by 
the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company. 



20 



The astral or argand lamp, which was constructed with a tubular wick and flattened 
ring reservoir so that there was no interruption of light on the table, was made in one simple 
style between 1830-1850. These lamps are marked with a small metal plate on the upper 
portion of their slender stems. 

While these early lamps burned whale oil or camphene, kerosene became the popular 
fuel by 1865. The kerosene lamps are distinguished by large fonts often set rather high 
on columnar stems of bronze or glass attached to a square foot of glass or marble. The glass 
fonts and stems for such lamps often were of cased glass, then cut and faceted in a geo- 
metric pattern. The most elaborate decorative techniques — engraving, cut prisms, etch- 
ing, faceting and gilding — were used on lamps made at the time of and after the Civil War. 



Pattern Olass and Late Pressed 

Pattern glass is the popular pressed glass of the 19th century. Never as expensive and 
fine as lacy glass, patterned wares were developed in table settings as the public fancy de- 
manded. Most of the designs for pattern glass are dated later than lacy objects. By 1850, 
a variety of patterns were available from many companies. The New England Glass Com- 
pany produced several that were made by other factories, yet in general, the designs asso- 
ciated with the Company are solid uses of broad and simple motifs, often resembling cut 
glass. No pattern glass identified with the New England Glass Company employs the taste- 
less novelty of so much Victorian pattern glass. 

Following the Civil War, pattern glass was mass-produced in complete table settings. 
Soda-lime glass was used extensively by companies in the East and Midwest, but the New 
England Glass Company persisted with the more expensive lead metal in spite of keen com- 
petition. With this type of glass, the New England Glass Company moved as far as they would 
ever be from free blown methods demanding fine craftsmanship and a good design sense. 
Quantity production was possible with pattern glass as it had been with lacy glass, yet some 
hand work was needed for handles, pitcher lips, et cetera. Fire polishing, which softened the 
mold lines, necessitated a pontil rod and, subsequently, a polished pontil mark. 

Ashburton, ca. 1845-1875. Sometimes referred to as a thumbprint pattern, its simple, 
solid lines made it an early favorite that persisted as a popular design. This pattern was made 
at other factories and may have been one of the Company's earliest ventures in pattern glass. 
A worker at the factory, quoted in Cambridge Glass, said that the pattern was not fashionable 
after 1875. 

Blaze, ca. 1850-1870. This pattern is one of two vertical ribbed patterns made by the 
Company in mid-century and later. It is distinguished by its flame-like appearance of alter- 
nating ribbed peaks and valleys. 



21 



Fine Rib (Reeded), ca. 1850-1870. The vertical ribs relate this pattern to Blaze, and they 
are probably contemporary. 

Huber, ca. 1840-1870. An extremely popular pattern, it was manufactured in a variety 
of shapes or types. This conservative pattern is distinguished by its chaste use of vertical 
panels. 

Lawrence (Bull's-eye), ca. 1850-1870. This pattern is one of several variants of the 
Bull's-eye motif and one of two made by the New England Glass Company. Their name for 
it was Lawrence, although it is known today as Bull's-eye. 

Mitre Diamond (Sawtooth), ca. 1840-1870. There were several variations of this pattern, 
each with rows of rather large diamonds and very high relief. The diamond is faceted on four 
sides, terminating in a point. Mitre was the name given to the pattern by the New Eng- 
land Glass Company, yet other companies called it Sawtooth, Sharp Diamond, Pineapple, and 
Mitre and Diamond. This was an important and popular pattern. 

New England Pineapple, ca. 1850-1875. A scarce pattern, it incorporates three pine- 
apple-like designs of heavy diamonds and foliage. It is often associated with Sandwich and 
sometimes called Pineapple or Loop and Jewel. The pattern is similar to Tulip which was 
made ca. 1840-1850. 

New York (Almond Thumbprint) 

Vernon (Honeycomb), ca. 1850-1875. These patterns were separately listed by the 
New England Glass Company in the 1869 pressed glass catalogue. Today the patterns are re- 
ferred to as Honeycomb. In New York pattern, the honeycomb rows of almond shapes cov- 
ered the lower half of the object, and the upper half remains clear. Vernon pattern pieces 
extend the rows nearly to the top. 

Philadelphia, ca. 1860-1880. Alternating plain and reeded loops arranged in vertical 
manner distinguish this pattern, which probably was a post Civil War design. 

Sharp Diamond (Diamond), ca. 1840-1870. A very old pattern, made at a number of fac- 
tories, is Sharp Diamond. It was more obviously an imitation of cut glass than the other pat- 
terns made by the Company. The cut glass diamond design that served as prototype for 
this pressed pattern was utilized also in blown three-molded ware. 

Thumbprint, ca. 1860-1870. This pattern was made at several factories, including 
Sandwich and McKee's at Pittsburgh. There are many variants of Thumbprint pattern. 

Union (Bull's-eye with Diamond Point), ca. 1865-1880. The Bull's-eye and Diamond 
Point pattern resembles the New England Glass Company design, yet in the latter the loops 
have the wide portion at the top of the object and diamond hatching covers the loops except 
for the bull's-eye. 

Washington, ca. 1848-1870. This old pattern employs circles and depressed oval 
panels. It was used in the decades immediately preceding the Civil War. 

Waffle and Thumbprint, ca. 1850-1870. Probably made at the New England Glass Com- 
pany, this pattern contrasts circle and waffle- like cross hatchings. It appears to be an ex- 
tension of the Washington pattern. 

There are four flasks sometimes associated with the New England Glass Company be- 
cause of letters impressed in the sides of the containers. If the flasks were not manufac- 



22 



tured by this Company, perhaps they were produced to be sold by the East Cambridge fac- 
tory. A likely manufacturer is the New England Glass Bottle Company which was incorpor- 
ated by Jarves and Edmund Monroe. It functioned between 1826-1845. A price list of this 
bottle company, dated November 1, 1829, indicates that "flask bottles" were made in half- 
pint, pint, and quart sizes in "black and green ware." Although an invoice of the New Eng- 
land Glass Company listed "oval black flasks" and "oval green flasks," this would not prove 
that the manufacturer was the shipper. 

The four flasks (McKearin GII-77, GIV-15, GIV-26, GIV-27)-are associated tentatively 
with the Marlboro Street Glassworks, Keene, New Hampshire, in George and Helen 
McKearin, American Glass, New York, 1941. While only one (GIV-27) bears initials that ex- 
actly abbreviate the New England Glass Company, the others at least suggest, by contrac- 
tion, the factory name. 



Paperweights 



At mid-century, the New England Glass Company began producing paperweights in a 
variety of techniques and types. Few of the paperweights are dated, but two indicate that 
the Company was involved with their manufacture by 1851-1852: the Victoria and Albert 
weight (which was taken from a medal dated 1851) and a latticinio paperweight of floral 
bouquets (dated 1852 on one cane). The design and execution of a paperweight required 
both skill and patience, sometimes of several workers, for a gaffer, cutter, and model 
maker might all be involved with a single object. 

The decorative devices encased within the clear lead glass comprising the bulk of a 
paperweight are flowers, tiny bouquets, fruit, and colored canes. The Company also pro- 
duced handsome, vividly colored fruit, almost life-size that rest on clear glass pads. In some 
paperweights, small bunches of fruit or flower bouquets rest on latticinio doilies. The 
Company called this type of weight Venetian. The Boston and Sandwich Glass Company 
also used this arrangement of objects on opaque white latticinio doilies, yet in Sandwich 
paperweights the latticinio portion seems to cover a greater area beneath the fruit or flowers. 
Probably the Company's most skillfully rendered weights are the pressed and acid treated 
portraits set in six-sided clear glass bodies. Millefiori paperweights (those employing canes 
or tiny wheels in striped and colored glass) are virtuoso performances by the glass workers 
who patiently arranged bit by bit the slices of cane to form a colored mosaic. During the Com- 
pany's last years, the paperweights often were pressed objects, such as the reclining dog 
and miniature Plymouth Rock. Weights resembling books, made of clear glass, then cut 
and engraved, were made in the 1870's and 1880's, although faceted weights were made 
throughout the three decades of paperweight manufacturing. 



23 



Of the portrait weights, the best known is that one depicting Victoria and Albert and 
modeled after a medal struck in 1851 commemorating the London Exposition. This same 
double portrait appears in the base of a pressed bowl attributed to the New England Glass 
Company. Another double portrait of the Queen and Consort (probably a sulphide portrait 
including the head and shoulders) has been attributed to the Company. Other portrait weights, 
relatively flat and thin objects made about 1850-1860, are those with portraits of Henry Clay 
(facing left with HENRY CLAY inscribed below); Daniel Webster (facing right, inscribed 
WEBSTER below); Amos and Abbott Lawrence (facing right and inscribed ABBOT LAW- 
RENCE AMOS above the heads). Portrait weights of Lincoln, Washington, Kossuth, and 
Prince Albert, encased in globular or six-sided bodies, are also attributed to this factory. 
An especially fine paperweight with a bas-relief scene is the Labor-Virtue-Honor paperweight 
taken from an Indian Peace medal designed by Joseph Willson (1825-1857). This weight 
depicts a pioneer and Indian facing each other against a backdrop of an American flag and 
a pastoral landscape. It is signed at the bottom of the circular medal within the six-sided 
body, J. WILLSON. Undoubtedly the portrait and bas-relief paperweights produced by the 
New England Glass Company were adapted from medals designed by professional medalists 
and cameo cutters. 



Art Mass 



During the last decade in East Cambridge, the Company produced" an array of so-called 
art glass for a market ever expectant of novelty and exotic ornamentation. Since 1818 the 
Company had produced colored and decorated glass, but experimentation with techniques 
and novel effects became increasingly important to the Company as the years progressed. 
More and more attention was directed to surface treatments and color, rather than to design 
of individual objects. The handsome simple shapes of free-blown, pressed and cut glass of 
the first fifty years of the Company's existence were supplanted by superficiality. 

Amberina. Though the New England Glass Company had made ruby glass of fine 
quality for many years, a new colored glass blending ruby and amber in one object was de- 
veloped and marketed by 1883. Thomas Gaffield noted in his Journal, Vol. 4, July 20, 
1883, that this type of glass was "new" and was enjoying a "large sale." He added: "The 
effect of different degrees of coloration for yellow or amber to red in the same article is 
produced by different degrees of heat, to which the different portions of the article are ex- 
posed in the hands of a skillful workman before annealing." At the fair of the New Eng- 
land Manufacturers' and Mechanics' Institute on October 23, 1883, Gaffield saw a "most 
beautiful exhibition of a new kind of glass, made at the New England Glassworks at East 
Cambridge, called Amberina glass." 



24 



The Amberina technique in glass was patented July 24, 1883, by Joseph Locke and 
assigned to W. L. and E. D. Libbey who operated the New England Glass Company. An occa- 
sional piece of Amberina bears a paper label identifying the Company, trade name of the glass, 
and patent date. In the furnace, Amberina glass, which was amber in color in melted state, 
had a small amount of gold added to it. When the blown article cooled, it was then reheated 
at the glory hole of the furnace and the reheated section received a strong red color. The 
New England Glass Company held several patents involving Amberina, including one for 
lamp globes (November 13, 1883), one for making blanks to be cut (July 29, 1884), and one 
for plated Amberina (June 15, 1886). Production probably continued on this glass until 
the Company closed. 

Agata. Another development of Joseph Locke was Agata glass, developed in 1886-1887 
and patented January 18, 1887. This technique involved a marbled coating of a metallic or 
mineral stain which was spattered as a volatile liquid. Generally it was applied to Wild 
Rose (Peachblow) objects. This short-lived technique occurs in matte or glossy finishes. 
The stains usually are blue and amber in color, although the Company also produced a 
green stain. 

Pomona. On February 23, 1885, Thomas Gaffield visited the New England Glass Com- 
pany to see the cutting and blowing departments. He recorded that he "saw in the decorating 
rooms a new kind of glass, called Cremona (sic) glass. It is etched by acid and the upper 
portions stained so as to give a gilt and an iridescent effect also. The glass has not yet been 
introduced into the market and will not until Mr. Libbey has manufactured a considerable 
amount of stock to meet the first demand." 

Gaffield learned later that the correct name for the glass was Pomona, a type of art 
glass patented by Joseph Locke on April 28, 1885. Pomona objects were given a wax coating 
and then dipped in acid (after designs were scratched through the wax) to etch the surface 
with its butterfly, pansy or wild rose motifs. Mineral stains were then applied to the designed 
areas and fired, producing slightly iridescent colors of blue and deep amber. Women applied 
the designs and painted the pieces. Locke's second patent, June 15, 1886, improved the 
tedious system of applying the wax resist. Normally, Pomona glass was a light amber color 
and most pieces were pattern molded. 

Wild Rose (Peachblow). The popularity of Peachblow glass was occasioned by the sale on 
March 8, 1886, of the Morgan collection of Chinese and Japanese porcelains in New York 
City. The then phenomenal price of $18,000 was paid for a small vase and stand of delicate 
coloring. In true Peachblow glass, the object is shaded from pink or white to deep rose in 
the upper portions. The New England Glass Company apparently experimented with this type 
of glass some years before the Morgan sale, perhaps by 1884 when they attempted to com- 
pete with products of other companies. 

Legal action over the use of the names Amberina and Peachblow resulted in the court's 
decision to permit the New England Glass Company to retain exclusive right to Amberina, 
but had to refrain from using Peachblow which became the property of the Mount Washing- 
ton Glass Company. Thus, the East Cambridge company began calling their opaque 
shaded ware Wild Rose. This was patented by Joseph Locke on July 13, 1886, a type of 
glass in which the inner and outer surfaces shaded from white to rose. The Company's form- 

25 



ula blended opal glass and gold ruby, and the reheating colored the area subject to the 
most heat. The surface of such objects could have a glossy or matte finish. 

Maize. Although this type of art glass is known to have been a product of William L. 
Libbey and Son, Toledo, Ohio (Libbey Glass Company) in 1889, it was made for a very brief 
period in East Cambridge in 1888. It was one of the last colored novelties of the Company. 
Locke's patent for this glass that resembles ears of corn in design and color, was filed April 
6, 1889, but not accepted until September 10, 1889. This glass was probably developed in 
East Cambridge, but never produced there in any quantity. 



Glass Formulas 



With lead glass, the New England Glass Company catered to the needs for fine tableware 
and competed with European imports. In the exploitation of mechanical pressing and 
molded wares, it reached the market for less expensive glass. These two factors are re- 
sponsible for the New England Glass Company's early success and for its prosperous posi- 
tion by mid-century. 

By 1832, fully one-third of all American lead glass was produced in East Cambridge and 
at Sandwich. The lead glass industry was firmly established. The New England Glass Com- 
pany noted in the Report on Manufacture of Glass in the United States, 1832, that one-third 
of its plain and cut glass was disposed of in Massachusetts; one-third in Connecticut, New 
York, Pennsylvania and Maryland; and the remainder in the southern tStates, Europe and the 
West Indies. 

The Company prospered in its first decades. By the mid-19th century, when it reached 
the peak of its prosperity, the Company was expanded far beyond its status in 1818. Over 
500 workers were employed in 1865, the Company had a capitalization of $500,000, and 
the value of its yearly product was $500,000. The gradual economic decline of the Company 
began about this time, however. At the time of the Civil War, competition from other factories, 
particularly those in the Midwest, was keenly felt. The coal used to stoke the furnaces was 
more costly in New England than in the Pittsburgh area. An important factor to a com- 
pany that worked with expensive, fine quality lead glass, was a cheap substitute, lime glass, 
developed in 1864 in Wheeling, West Virginia. Soon afterwards many companies began pro- 
ducing tableware in this metal, cutting costs drastically, yet the New England Glass Com- 
pany refused to lower their standards and did not use soda-lime glass in quantity. 

Before the Company's furnaces produced the lead or flint glass under Deming Jarves' 
guidance in 1818, only a few factories manufactured glassware of this quality. Thomas 
Caines and the South Boston Glass Works and the Boston Porcelain and Glass Manufactur- 
ing Company supplied the New England market with some lead glass, but their efforts 



26 



were never completely successful. To capture at least a portion of the market for lead glass 
that, prior to 1818, was largely serviced by imported ware, was one of the New England Glass 
Company's intentions when operations began. They succeeded where others had failed. 

The New England Glass Company's agent, Deming Jarves, claimed to have been the 
first person in America to build a lead furnace. Because of Jarves' ingenuity, the Company 
was not dependent upon foreign suppliers of lead, and they also manufactured enough red 
lead to provide other glass works with this ingredient. Sand for the Company's furnaces 
came from Morris River, New Jersey, before 1850 and from Berkshire County, Massachusetts, 
from that date to 1888. For fuel, the Company burned Cumberland coal from Virginia. 
Eventually, coal as fuel became a major problem for the Company. Transportation costs from 
the mines to the docks on the Charles River added a burden to the Company that her Mid- 
western competitors did not have. Too, by the last quarter of the 19th century, natural gas 
provided a cheaper fuel for glass furnaces. 

In a notebook entry dated 1848 kept by John H. Leighton, there is a formula that 
apparently is the important early one devised and used by Thomas Leighton, John's father, first 
gaffer with the Company. A marginal note by Thomas Leighton says: "This makes a beau- 
tiful flint glass." His formula includes: 

sand ....... 700 

litherage (sic) .... 400 

ash 300 

nitre 100 

manganese 4 oz. 

arsenic 8 oz. 

By 1873 the formula was somewhat refined with the addition of several materials, ac- 
cording to William L. Libbey's recipe for lead glass: 

sand 1,200 

lead 650 

ash 420 

bicar 10 

saltpetre 95 

borax 1 

charcoal 4 oz. 

bone 5 lbs. 

manganese . . . . \y 2 lbs. 

arsenic iy 2 lbs. 

According to an account written in 1855, the Company's raw materials for their lead 
glass included: "white silicious sand, pearlash (potash), red oxide of lead, nitrate of potash, 
and the black oxide of manganese." Every batch in the Company's furnace was not lead 
glass, however; but because the Company specialized in glassware made in the finer metal, 
soda-lime glass and green glass were uncommon. The Company's formula in 1855 for bottle 
or green glass, which they styled "green glass for junk bottles," was composed of "common 
sand, lime, some clay, and impure alkali." 



27 



The Company was noted for its variety of colored lead glass, and recipes for most of 
the known colors exist in the Leighton notebook. In this book are recipes for purple, tur- 
quoise, alabaster, blue, white enamel, yellow, brick red, Naples yellow, amber, green, black, 
light blue, blue for pressing, light blue for pressing, dark blue, silver stain, white obscure, 
stone color, white, yellow enamel, orange, dark red, opal, red brown, "black for painting 
and mixing with other colors", "black for shading and drawing under green", transparent 
green, rose color. These recipes all involved the addition of coloring elements to a basic 
flint or lead batch. Leighton also included recipes of more digestive nature, such as fruit 
cake, pickle for pork and beef, and mead! 

Some of the Leighton recipes in this important record date from September and No- 
vember, 1846, and certain formulas are dated 1848. An especially interesting recipe is 
labelled "to make flint glass without lead," indicating that the factory did at least have the 
formula for producing glass of lead quality that used no lead oxide. It lists: 

700 lbs sand . . 40 C 100 lbs. 

362 pearlash . . . . 7i/ 2 

56 soda 8 

140 lime ...... y z 

41/2 borax 24 

2 arsenic 13 

IV2 manganese .... 10 

The Leightons were concerned with fluxes (used to fuse the silica) and several formulas 
are given for these. Several recipes for "Bohemian" batch are given, one of them with a mar- 
ginal note: "This makes a beautiful ruby color: 

sand 32 

lead 30 

nitre 10 

manganese 2 oz. 

antimony 1% 

oxide of gold . . . . 1 oz. 

tin % oz. 

By 1852 the Company was producing pressed glass buttons in black, blue, green and 
maroon, as recipes for these colors with marginal notes specify. The first recipe for opal glass 
is dated 1866 in the notebook: 

sand 15.00 

lead 10.00 

ash 5.00 

nitre 2.50 

phosphate of lime ... 90 

muriate of soda . . . .120 

arsenic 100 



28 



An opaque white employing cryolite is dated December 6, 1867, probably the first 
time this material was used: 

sand, Morris River . . 13.50 

cryolite 5.25 

white oxide of zinc . . 1.15 

manganese 10 

In the Leighton book, recipes are sometimes credited to the person donating them, such 
as a recipe for lime glass by William Cains in 1872, a "Libbey recipe for white," "best 
flint glass" from William L. Libbey in 1873, and one called "New Bedford opal" — probably 
from the Mount Washington Glass Company. 

These records are very valuable today in one's study of the New England Glass Com- 
pany. They indicate the chemical composition of glass produced by the Company in part of 
its 70 year history. Also, through marginal notes and descriptive titles, they give us some 
appreciation of the great variety of colors made for the glass and for its decoration. As the 
notebooks are a form of work record, their dates and descriptions suggest the relative pop- 
ularity of certain types of glass. 



Marked Blass 



With a proper sense of pride, American glass factories have marked their products with 
their names for advertising and identification purposes. Perhaps the historical and pic- 
torial flasks of the first half of the 19th century are the most common items marked by 
glass factories. In addition to these articles with molded marks, there are cut, engraved, 
enamelled, and labelled marks on a variety of articles identifying glass houses or makers. 
Nineteen separate marks or inscriptions designating the New England Glass Company are 
noted on objects in this exhibition. Some are rather common, such as the marks pressed in 
the bases of certain salts; others are quite rare, such as the paper lable identifying Agata 
glass. 

(1) N.E. /GLASS/COMPANY/BOSTON 

(2) N E /GLASS/COMPANY/BOSTON 

The best known marked objects by the New England Glass Company are the lacy salt cellars 
made between 1825-1850. Four lines pressed in the rectangular bases of these receptacles, 
within an elongated keyhole shaped depression, occur in salts of different designs. One salt 
has no periods behind the letters "N" and "E." 

(3) N.E.G.Co./E.R.-S.R. 

Lamps with pressed, square plinths decorated with lion's heads and flower baskets have been 
attributed to the New England Glass Company and the Boston and Sandwich Glass Com- 



29 



pany, dating between 1825-1845. Certain of the lamps are marked with two lines of letters 
within a circle in the hollow base. The second line may be an abbreviation for Enoch Robin- 
son, the patentee of pressed glass door knobs in 1826. 

(4) N.E.GLASS Co. 

This mark, cut or etched in a rectangle, appears on a few pieces found in Massachusetts. 
The signature is seen on ground pontil marks, on handles, and on the sides of vases and 
lamps. In one case it appears on an argand lamp, circa 1825-1845, that also has a small 
plate with another distinctive Company marking. 

(5) N.E.GLASS Co./BOSTON 

A small metal plate on the fixture portion of the stem on some argand-astral lamps, circa 
1825-1845, identifies the Company and its location. Apparently these marks were made spe- 
cifically for such lamps, for they do not occur on other products of the Company. 

(6) NG/Co. 

(7) N.G.Co. 

(8) NEG 

(9) N EG/Co. 

Four flasks dating between 1825-1840 are marked with letters that can be associated with 
the Company. Of these flasks (McKearin G 11-77, G IV-15, G IV-26, G IV-27) only the letters 
on G IV-27 (no. 9 above) exactly reproduce the initials of the New England Glass Company. 
As molds were often made by factories for private owners or bottlers, these flasks may have 
been made by a factory for sale by the New England Glass Company. 

(10) N.E.GLASS CO. PATENT APPLIED FOR 

(11) N.E.GLASS CO. PATENTED OCT. 24, 1854. 

Railroad lanterns were produced by the Company in 1854, as indicated by stampings on the 
underside of the metal bases. The metal portions of the lanterns presumably were made by 
the Company as they had their own metal or trimming shop. The stamping "Patent Applied 
For" must have been used shortly before the patent for the lanterns was approved and 
assigned to the New England Glass Company, October 24, 1854. 

(12) NEGCo. 

A tiny glass plug inserted in the base of silvered vessels made by the New England Glass Com- 
pany, circa 1850-1860, was covered inside with a plate inscribed with the Company's initials. 
Silvered objects with these plugs are quite rare today. 

(13) N.E.G.Co. 

Inscribed in the brass fixture near the wick on a lamp dating about 1860 is this mark. Ap- 
parently this mark was not in much use by the Company. It does not occur as frequently 
as the rare mark (no. 5) on the argand lamps of an earlier date. 

(14) New England Glass Co. 

This unusual mark, cut or etched within a circle, is found on the base of pieces acquired 
in Newburyport, Massachusetts. The glass on which the mark appears dates about 1865- 
1875. 

(15) New Engld-/Glass Co./Boston 

A decanter and wine glass set made for the Centennial Exposition, 1876, was wheel en- 



30 



graved in Old English script in this manner. The set was made for the Massachusetts Cen- 
tennial Headquarters. 

(16) NEGW/AMBERINA/PAT'D/JULY 24, 1883. 

(17) NEGW/POMONA/PAT'D/JUNE 15, 1886. 

(18) NEGW/AG ATA/PAT' D Jan. 18, 1887. 

(19) NEGW/WILD ROSE/PAT' D/MARCH 2, 1886. 

Printed paper labels were attached to the bases of Amberina, Pomona, Agata, and Wild Rose 
art glass during the last years of production in East Cambridge. These small labels are rela- 
tively rare and were easily lost in washing. 



Competitors and Neighbors 

The New England Glass Company, through the efforts of its ambitious officers and em- 
ployees, fostered the organization of several glass works in and around its Cambridge site. 
Deming Jarves and Edmund Monroe were the most active and successful sponsors of other 
glass operations. Jarves' Boston and Sandwich Glass Company is the most notable offspring 
of the East Cambridge company, although its business affairs were entirely independent of 
the older factory. It is not surprising that the greatest confusion in attribution of New Eng- 
land Glass Company products concerns the differentiation of Sandwich pieces from those 
made in East Cambridge. There are numerous objects assigned to both glass factories be- 
cause of their construction and design; that is, the objects may have been made at one or 
the other, or both, factories. This problem is further compounded by the inability of glass 
students, until fairly recently, to distinguish true Sandwich glass from the multitude of Sand- 
wich-type glass. 

While the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company's ware is most often confused with 
certain types or techniques employed by the New England Glass Company, other products 
by Cambridge and Boston factories, when studied further, may aid in distinguishing New 
England Glass Company objects from those of its neighbors and competitors. Occasionally, 
these glass companies were not competitors of the East Cambridge works (some produced 
crown glass, for example), but in no case did a neighbor or competitor enjoy the long and 
relatively prosperous seventy-year life span of the New England Glass Company. The follow- 
ing glass works were neighbors, competitors, or predecessors of the New England Glass 
Company in the Boston area. Direction or executive management may have been related 
between two companies, such as Edmund Monroe's activities at the New England Glass Com- 
pany and the New England Glass Bottle Company, and occasionally a company was 
created to produce a type of glassware not manufactured by another. 



31 



Boston Crown Glass Company. 

Organized July 6, 1787, this company produced their first crown window glass and hollow 
ware in 1793. A new incorporation was completed in 1809 and another glass house erected 
in 1811 on Essex Street. Its operations were dissolved .in 1827. Working at the Essex Street 
furnace, Thomas Caines, about 1812, produced America's first flint glass. Several of the 
workers at this factory left in 1815 to join the Boston Porcelain and Glass Company. 
Boston Porcelain and Glass Manufacturing Company. 

Incorporated February 14, 1814, its glass house was built at Lechmere (or Craigie's) Point, 
East Cambridge, Massachusetts. It was an unsuccessful venture, and the works were 
leased by Emmet, Fisher and Flowers in 1815. The buildings and land were purchased at a 
public sale by the men who later founded the New England Glass Company. 
The New England Crown Glass Company. 

Formed in Cambridge for the purpose of manufacturing window glass, which was blown and 
produced by the crown method, wherein circular discs were blown and then cut into smaller 
panes, this company was incorporated February 4, 1824. It was a near neighbor of the 
New England Glass Company, having been constructed on land owned by Amos Binney, an 
incorporator of the New England Glass Company. While not properly a part of New England 
Glass Company's operations, its crown glass served a market for which the other company did 
not provide. The company was insolvent in 1838. 
South Boston Crown Glass Company (South Boston Glass Company). 

A competitor of the New England Crown Glass Company, it was incorporated on the same date 
and was located in South Boston, Suffolk County. Its executives were those who had formed, 
in 1809, the Boston Crown Glass Company on Essex Street. By 1825 the yearly value of 
its flint glass was $62,000 and its crown glass $104,000. It ceased operations about 1827. 
Phoenix Glass Works. 

Just across the street from the South Boston Crown Glass Company, Thomas Caines estab- 
lished this works about 1820. It was operated by members of Caines' family and others 
until about 1870, producing flint glass tableware. 
New England Glass Bottle Company. 

On February 15, 1826, Deming Jarves and Edmund Monroe incorporated this glass factory 
for the sole purpose of making bottles in East Cambridge. By 1832, bottles, carboys and 
demijohns produced here had a yearly value of $55,000. Jarves was its first agent. Orders 
for bottles to the New England Glass Company or the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company 
on Cape Cod probably were filled by this company's ware. This bottle factory prospered 
for nineteen years, closing in 1845. 
Boston Flint Glass Company. 

Lead or flint glass was this company's mainstay. It was incorporated March 6, 1830, and 
functioned for an unknown length of time. 
Lechmere Glass Company. 

Another Cambridge factory was this company, which was incorporated March 28, 1834. The 
enterprising Edmund Monroe was one of its incorporators. 



32 



Mount Washington Glass Works. 

The indefatigable Deming Jarves established this factory in South Boston in 1837 for his son, 

George D. Jarves. By 1866, William L. Libbey, who later became owner of the New England 

Glass Company, was sole proprietor of thi6 glass house. Three years later the firm was moved 

to New Bedford, Massachusetts. 

American Flint Glass Works. 

In 1843 this company was formed by Patrick F. Slane, who acquired the works of the South 

Boston Crown Glass Company and then produced cut and pressed glass at its furnaces. 

About 1858 the works were closed. 

Boston Flint Glass Works. 

Thomas Leighton, Sr., the talented gaffer of the New England Glass Company organized this 

factory in East Cambridge before 1849, when he died. The company failed in 1867. It is 

unknown if this factory was related to the Boston Flint Glass Company. 

Bay State Glass Company. 

A neighbor of the New England Glass Company and located on Bridge at North Fourth 

Streets, East Cambridge, this company's buildings were erected about 1849. Lead glass, cut, 

and engraved ware were produced at this small factory, which functioned until 1873 or 

1877. 

Boston Silver Glass Company. 

Silver (mercury) glass and flint ware were manufactured by this East Cambridge company, 
which was established in 1857 and operated until at least 1871. 




The New England Glass Company, from a billhead dated 1822. Courtesy of Charles B. Gardner. 



33 




Catalogue number 62 




Catalogue number 3 



37 




Catalogue numbers 20, 19, 12, 10, 5 



38 




Catalogue number 7 



39 




Catalogue number 13 



40 




Catalogue number 23 



41 




Catalogue number 31 



42 




'--^ EL — ■ 



Catalogue numbers 33, 35, 36, 30, 22 



43 










Catalogue number 40 



44 




Catalogue number 44 



45 




Catalogue numbers 53, 47, 52 



46 









Catalogue number 51 



47 




Catalogue number 56 



48 




Catalogue number 57 
49 




Catalogue number 64 



50 




Catalogue number 68 



51 




Catalogue numbers 75, 89, 77, 79, 76, 90 



52 




Catalogue number 102 



53 





Catalogue numbers 104, 108, 99, 187 



54 




^ r -«^ aMS **y1^V 







Catalogue number 106 



55 




Catalogue number 197 



56 




Catalogue numbers 189, 196, 192, 203 



57 




Catalogue numbers 214, 225, 217, 237, 211 



58 




Catalogue numbers 245, 251, 250, 239, 248 



59 




Catalogue numbers 272, 268, 267, 269, 263 



60 



CATALOGUE 



FREE BLOWN: EARLY PERIOD, 
1818-1845 



1. URN 

Ht. 8 inches. Diam. 4% inches. Blown and mold 
blown, clear, with applied handles, solid stem with 
button knop, circular foot, threaded lip, gadrooned 
base to bowl. Engraved with initials G.M.P. and a 
two-masted ship, titled below: Falcon. 
English. About 1760. 

Certain similarities (gadrooning, solid stem with but- 
ton knop, threaded lip) exist between Company ob- 
jects and this English urn. Workers in East Cam- 
bridge developed their own styles, but English 
glassmaking traditions were incorporated in the 
early careers of such men as Thomas Leighton and 
George Dale, gaffers. 
Ex-collection: Leckie. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum (ace. no. 13.1013). 

2. BOWL 

Diam. 8% inches. Blown, clear, two bands of 

guilloche decoration below a folded rim. 

New England Glass Company or South Boston Glass 

Company. About 1820. 

The guilloche decoration often is identified with the 

South Boston Glass Company, and certain items of 

heavy lead glass with guilloche were made by 

workers (such as George Flowers) who eventually 

moved on to The New England Glass Company. 

South Boston objects generally are lighter than 

Company pieces. 

Lent by The Museum of Fine Arts. Boston, gift of 

Mrs. James S. Smith (ace. no. 59.38). 

3. PAIR OF DECANTERS 

Ht. 10 Vi and 11 inches. Blown, clear, with two 
bands of guilloche decoration around body, two 
applied rings around neck, each with blown stop- 
pers with ribbed equators. 

New England Glass Company or South Boston Glass 
Company. About 1820. 

Lent by The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (ace. no. 
63.258-63.259). 

4. PITCHER 

Ht. 5Vi inches. Blown, clear, threaded, flaring lip, 

applied handle, crudely formed guilloche below 

threads, gadrooned bowl, solid stem and knop on 

circular foot. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820-1830. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 

Published: American Glass, plate 55, no. 4. 

Lent by Old Sturbridge Village (ace. no. 13.36.42). 



5. PITCHER 

Ht. 5% inches. Blown, ultramarine blue, guilloche 

band around body, applied handle, circular foot. 

About 1820-1830. 

Only example known in blue glass. 

Lent by Preston R. Bassett. 

6. PITCHER 

Ht. IIV2 inches. Blown, clear, threaded rim on flar- 
ing lip, horizontal ribs around waist of bowl, applied 
handle, hollow knop containing 1817 George III 
shilling, circular foot. 
About 1820-1830. 

Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers 
Fund, 1910 (ace. no. 10.60.26). 

7. URN 

Ht. 10 inches. Blown, clear, bell-shape bowl with 

folded rim, horizontal ribs around narrow waist, two 

applied handles, hollow stem and knop containing 

1810 George III two shilling piece, on circular foot. 

About 1830. 

Undoubtedly a presentation piece, similar to object 

illustrated in Cambridge Glass, frontispiece. 

Lent by The Corning Museum of Glass (ace. no. 

50.4.274). 

8. PITCHER 

Ht. 7% inches. Blown and mold blown, clear, 

applied handle, hollow stem and knop enclosing 

half-dime dated 1829, trailed decoration. 

About 1830-1840. 

Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

9. PITCHER 

Ht. 6 inches. Blown, clear, applied handle, hollow 

stem and knop, circular foot. 

About 1830-1840. 

Ex-collection: Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Limric, to 1959. 

Lent by The Bennington Museum, gift of Mr. and 

Mrs. Joseph Limric (ace. no. 59.589). 

10. PITCHER 

Ht. 5% inches. Blown, clear, flaring lip, bulbous 
body, applied handle, circular foot. 
About 1830-1840. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 17-B. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

11. PITCHER 

Ht. 714 inches. Blown, clear, threaded upper edge 
of bowl, flaring lip, horizontal rib at waist, gad- 
rooned base of bowl, applied handle, hollow knop 
of stem containing five cent piece, 1831, circular 
foot. 

About 1831-1840. 
Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton). 



61 



Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 28-B. 
Lent by Miss Martha Hall Bliss. 

12. URN 

Ht. 8 inches. Diam. 5 inches. Blown, clear, threaded 
upper edge of bowl, gadrooned base of bowl, two 
applied handles, hollow stem and knop enclosing 
two coins: one-quarter franc, Louis Philippe I, 1835, 
and five cent piece, 1837. Circular foot. 
About 1837-1840. 

Compare with example in Cambridge Glass, frontis- 
piece. 
Ex-collection: Charles Leighton 

Thomas Leighton, Jr. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, p. 73. 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

13. SUGAR BOWL OR VASE WITH COVER 

Ht. 9% inches. Blown and mold blown, clear, gad- 
drooned cover with swirled finial, threaded rim of 
bowl with gadrooning, short stem with button knop, 
circular foot. 
About 1840. 

A similar object in the Henry Ford Museum has a 
hollow knop enclosing a five cent piece, dated 1832. 
Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 
Published: American Glass, plate 55, no. 5. 

Toledo Museum News, Summer 1961, 

p. 65. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 53.75). 

14. SUGAR BOWL AND PITCHER 

Ht. (bowl) 5% inches. Ht. (pitcher) 4% inches. 
Blown and mold blown, clear, cover with gadrooned 
body and twisted finial set in threaded rim, applied 
threads on body above gadrooned base of bowl, on 
solid stem and circular foot. Flaring threaded lip 
on pitcher with applied handle, gadrooned body on 
solid stem and circular foot. 
About 1838-1840. 

According to family tradition, this set was made by 
William Leighton, son of the Company's early gaffer, 
Thomas Leighton. Gadrooning was a favorite decor- 
ative technique on Company objects made before 
mid-century. 
Ex-collection: John H. Leighton and Jane Barnes 

Leighton. 

Mary M. Leighton Pike. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 29-A. 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

15. MUG 

Ht. 6^8 inches. Blown and mold blown, clear, 
threaded upper bowl, gadrooned base of bowl, 
applied handle, solid stem with button knop, cir- 
cular foot. Inscribed within a wreath of foliage and 
with a long-tailed bird on either side: W.W./JULY/ 
18th/1842. 
1842. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin, to 1959. 
Published: American Glass, plate 55, no. 6. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 59.48). 

16. PAIR OF GOBLETS 

Ht. 6 inches. Blown, clear with white threads in 
latticinio technique, red band at rims on bowl and 
feet, bell shape bowls, hollow baluster stems, cir- 



cular feet. 

About 1840. 

Ex-collection: James B. and James F. Barnes. 

George S. McKearin. 
Published: American Glass, plate 58A, no. 1 and 5. 
Lent by The Henry Ford Museum (ace. no. 60.10.88 
A-B). 

17. MUG 

Ht. 3-1/16 inches. Blown, opaque white and red 
loops, applied handle and circular foot. 
About 1840-1850. 

The looped decoration, which is often considered a 
South Jersey technique in American glass but used 
by many glass factories, in this example probably 
stems from English models (Nailsea). Although it 
is not known if George Dale made this object, it 
was owned by him. Before he came to the Com- 
pany, he, like Thomas Leighton, worked in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

18. GOBLET 

Ht. 4% inches. Blown, clear, wide bowl, baluster 

stem, circular foot. 

About 1840-1850. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton). 

Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 41-A. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman. 

19. BANK 

Ht. 11% inches. Blown, clear, acorn finial above 
four struts springing from coin receptacle, solid 
stem, circular foot, pincered decoration on ribs. 
Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 
1840-1850. 

Elaborate glass banks were made at the Company, 
in Sandwich, and in South Jersey. Compare this 
example with American Glass, plate 59, no. 4. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

20. PITCHER 

Ht. 11 inches. Blown and engraved, clear, flaring 
neck, bulbous body, applied handle, hollow knop 
enclosing coin dated 1845, circular foot with cut 
star design. Engraved thistles and leaves surround- 
ing inscription on front: M. E. JACOP. 
Made by Thomas Leighton, Jr., and engraved by 
Samuel Fillebrown. About 1845. 
Purchased from the Jacop family, who stated it was 
given to Mr. and Mrs. Jacop on their 25th wedding 
anniversary by fellow Company workmen. 
Ex-collection: Jacop family. 

Published: D. Daniel, Cut and Engraved Glass, N. Y., 
1950, plate 64. 

Lent by The Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay 
Fund (ace. no. 48.185). 

FREE BLOWN: MIDDLE PERIOD, 1845- 
1870 

21. MUG 

Ht. 3 inches. Blown, cased opaque white and deep 
rose, applied handle and foot. 



62 



About 1840-1850. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

22. PITCHER 

Ht. 6% inches. Blown, opaque turquoise, flaring lip, 
heavy applied handle, applied circular foot. 
About 1850. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 23-B. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

23. VASE 

Ht. 9*4 inches. Blown, purple, turned back rim on 

tall neck with bulbous lower section, short stem on 

circular foot. 

About 1850. 

Ex-collection: John H. Leighton 

Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 31-B. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman. 

24. SUGAR BOWL AND COVER 

Ht. 5% inches. Blown, ruby bowl and inset cover, 
clear knob on cover, clear foot. 
About 1850-1855. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 18-B. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

25. PITCHER 

Ht. 5% inches. Blown, ruby body, clear applied 
handle and circular foot. 
About 1850-1855. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 18-C. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

26. GOBLET 

Ht. 514 inches. Blown, clear, baluster stem and 

circular foot, emerald green bowl. 

About 1850-1860. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Hamilton, Somerville, Mass. 

Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 50-A. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay Fund 
(ace. no. 45.143-12). 

27. VASE 

Ht. 8V2 inches. Blown, clear, bowl on faceted stem, 

circular foot, inscribed on the bowl within a wreath: 

B. 

About 1855. 

Ex-collection: James B. Barnes 

John H. Leighton 

Thomas Leighton III 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 



28. VASE 

Ht. 5 inches. Blown, mercury or silver glass, tall bell 
shape on circular foot. Marked on plug in foot: 
NEGCo. Engraved on plug and foot: 20. 
About 1855-1860. 

The Company produced glass treated with nitrate 
of silver by 1850, when they showed some examples 
at the Franklin Institute's 20th Exhibition. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

29. VASE 

Ht. 8 inches. Blown, mercury or silver glass, urn 

shape, on clear stem and circular foot, tapering neck 

and wide lip. Inscribed on side: Laura. 

About 1855-1860. 

Made for Laura Jane Ellis, the wife of John H. 

Leighton, Jr., and mother of Mrs. Damon E. Hall. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. John H. Leighton, Jr. 

Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Sampson. 

30. BOWL 

Ht. 4 inches. Diam. 4% inches. Blown, cased white 

deep rose, applied foot. 
About 1855-1865. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

31. PAIR OF GOBLETS 

Ht. 7% inches. Blown, opaque white and translu- 
cent blue loopings, tulip shape bowls, blue stems 
on circular feet. 

New England Glass Company. About 1860. 
These Nailsea-type goblets were purchased in Maine 
and have a history of Company manufacture. 
Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 
Published: American Glass, plate 56, no. 4A-B. 
Lent by The Henry Ford Museum 
(ace. no. 59.28.269A-B). 

32. VASE 

Ht. 8% inches. Blown, clear with white threads in 
latticinio technique, wide lip, oval body, ruby prunt 
applied to side of vase. 
About 1860-1870. 

This and other pieces in this technique are excep- 
tionally refined American examples of the Venetian 
latticinio method. 
Ex-collection: Thomas Leighton, Jr. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 20-A. 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

33. DECANTER 

Ht. 10-15/16 inches. Blown, clear with white threads 
in latticinio technique, wide lip. 
About 1860-1870. 

Technique similar to examples lent by The Henry 
Ford Museum (no. 16). This may be the "filigree" 
glass referred to by Thomas Gaffield in 1868. 
Ex-collection: Thomas Leighton III. 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 



63 



34. VASE 

Ht. 13% inches. Blown, ruby body, tall neck with 
scalloped rim, hollow baluster clear stem on cir- 
cular foot. 
About 1865. 

A similar piece is illustrated in Cambridge Glass, 
plate 19. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

35. TOILET SET OF THREE PIECES 

Ht. (bottles) 9% inches. Diam. (dish) 4 inches. 
Blown, opaque white with gold enamel and decal 
transfer decoration of female figure on each bottle, 
knob on dish cover. Each bottle inscribed in gold: 
Eliza. Cover inscribed: Eliza. 
About 1860-1870. 

Made for Eliza Leighton, wife of Thomas Leighton, 
Jr. Gaffield saw decal transfer operations at the 
Company in 1873, but presumably the practice was 
not new. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Sampson. 

36. VASE 

Ht. 11-15/16 inches. Diam. 5 inches. Blown, gold 
ruby, flaring body and rim, so-called Chinese form. 
About 1865. 
Ex-collection: Mrs. Hamilton, Somerville, Mass. 

Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay Fund 
(ace. no. 45.143-31). 

37. VASE 

Ht. 914 inches. Diam. 5% inches. Blown, opales- 
cent glass with blue rim, bell shape body, baluster 
stem, circular foot. Marked on base in a circle: 
New England Glass Co. 
About 1865-1875. 
Only piece known with this mark. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

FREE BLOWN: LATE PERIOD, 1870-1888 

38. VASE 

Ht. 7% inches. Blown, opaque white, acid-etched, 

oval with flaring rim, circular foot, enamelled moss 

rose decoration. 

About 1860-1870. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton). 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman. 

39. VASE 

Ht. 9% inches. Blown, opaque white, bulbous shape 

with short neck, enamelled medallion on body of 

white roses and foliage, black bands on rim and 

foot. 

About 1860-1870. 

Ex-collection: John H. Leighton. 

Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

40. PAIR OF VASES 

Ht. 6-13/16 inches. Blown, opaque white with 
painted body in Chinese red, black circular foot, 
decorated with painted morning glories and foliage. 
About 1860-1870. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 



Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

41. VASE 

Ht. 8% inches. Blown, opaque white with painted 

decoration of eagle, shield, and flags, oval body, 

flaring neck, circular foot. 

About 1860-1870. 

Opal was the trade name for this type of glass. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 

Lent by The Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay Fund 

(ace. no. 45.143-30). 

42. DOUBLE BOTTLE 

Ht. 5V2 inches. Blown, clear, two slender bottles 
joined at sides, attached to short knop stem, cir- 
cular foot, blown stoppers, bottles engraved with 
flowers and foliage. 

Engraved by Louis Vaupel. About 1870-1875. 
According to a former owner, Mrs. Dalton, this 
curious object was made for her as an engagement 
present. She worked for the Company as book- 
keeper in the 1870's. 
Ex-collection: Mrs. Charles X. Dalton 

Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 
Published: Antiques, April 1947, p. 268. 

D. Daniel, Cut and Engraved Glass, New 

York, 1950, plate 149. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay Fund 
(ace. no. 45.143-14). 

43. BOTTLE 

Ht. 4% inches. Blown, turquoise, body with straight 

sides, short neck with stopper, white enamel flowers 

and foliage around shoulder, gold enamel bands on 

bowl and stopper. 

About 1875. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Charles X. Dalton, Somerville, 

Mass. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 59.31 

A-B). 

CUT AND ENGRAVED: EARLY PERIOD, 
1818-1845 

44. PAIR OF DECANTERS 

Ht. 11% inches. Blown and cut, three ring neck, 

cut in panels with engraved grapes and foliage, star 

motif cut in stopper tops, wide pouring lips. Each 

inscribed at base of one of twelve panels: John/H. 

/Leighton. 

About 1840. 

Ex-collection: John H. Leighton 

Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 22-B (for one). 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman. 

CUT AND ENGRAVED: MIDDLE PERIOD, 
1845-1870 

45. PITCHER 

Ht. 5 inches. Blown and cut, ruby over clear, clear 
applied handle, engraved sprays of foliage across 
wide part of bowl, thin band of foliage around neck. 
About 1850. 



64 



Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 31. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman. 

46. DISH 

Width 5-1/16 inches. Length 8-5/16 inches. Blown 
and cut, clear, oval with scalloped top edge, band 
of foliage below edge, star cut base, diamond pat- 
tern in band in bottom of bowl. Inscribed at one 
end: John H. Leighton. 
About 1850-1860. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Sampson. 

47. BOTTLE 

Ht. 7Vi inches. Blown and mold blown, clear with 
tinted sections in light rose, square with short neck 
and flaring lip, paneled tall stopper, wheel-engraved 
on three sides with a castle, basket of flowers, 
Turkish rider and horse, inscribed on one side in a 
medallion: Mother/Dec. 25, 1856. 
Perhaps by Louis Vaupel. 1856. 
Family tradition indicates that this piece was en- 
graved by Vaupel. If so, it was executed during his 
first year with the company. The bottle was made 
for Jane Barnes Leighton, the wife of John H. 
Leighton. 
Ex-collection: John H. Leighton 

Mrs. W. W. Pike (Mary M. Leighton) 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 30-B, right. 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

48. BOTTLE 

Ht. 5% inches. Blown and mold blown, clear, square 
with short neck and flaring lip, paneled stopper, 
wheel engraved on three sides with a castle, bou- 
quet of flowers, and a deer. Inscribed on one side: 
Mary/May. 

Perhaps by Louis Vaupel. About 1855-1860. 
Ex-collection: Mrs. W. W. Pike (Mary M. Leighton) 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 30-B, left. 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

49. GOBLET 

Ht. 5% inches. Blown and cut, clear, bowl inscribed 
within a band of ivy: Dale. Fluted stem of six panels, 
reverse of bowl engraved with grapes and foliage, 
circular foot. 
About 1860. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

50. GOBLET 

Ht. 5% inches. Diam. 3-7/16 inches. Blown and 

cut, clear, bowl engraved with swags of foliage, 

faceted stem, circular foot. 

About 1860. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Sampson. 

51. COMPOTE 

Ht. 8 J /2 inches. Diameter 9-5/16 inches. Blown and 
cut, clear, bowl of twelve panels, scalloped edge, 
engraved with grapes and foliage, on hollow balus- 
ter stem, heavy circular foot with paneled edges. 



Perhaps by Henry S. Fillebrown. About 1860-1870. 
A similar bowl of twelve panels with engraving is 
illustrated in Cambridge Glass, plate 53. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum, gift of Mrs. Sarah 
G. Pierce (ace. no. 44.54). 

52. TUMBLER 

Ht. 3% inches. Diam. 3*4 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear, engraved with scene of hunters relaxing in 
a landscape with dog and fallen deer, one side with 
Leighton coat-of-arms and inscribed motto: DREAD 
SHAME. Star cut base, eleven panels cut at bottom 
of sides. 

Attributed to Henry B. Leighton. About 1860-1870. 
This tumbler probably is part of a set now dispersed 
among members of the Leighton family. Compare 
with no. 53 in this catalogue. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Sampson. 

53. TUMBLER 

Ht. 3 5 / 8 inches. Diam. 3 l / 4 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear, engraved with scene of dismounted Turkish 
rider holding a horse by reins, on reverse two riders 
on horseback, fluted base. 

Attributed to Henry B. Leighton. About 1860-1870. 
This heavy tumbler and others in a set of the same 
size and type of engraving are similar to the one 
illustrated in Cambridge Glass, plate 56, and dis- 
cussed on page 122. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman. 

54. GOBLET 

Ht. 7% inches. Blown, clear, bowl joined to solid 
knop and "dumb-bell" stem, circular foot with star 
cut base. Bowl inscribed between bands of foliage: 
B. F. McN./Dec. 25th 1864. Upright flower spray 
engraved on reverse. 

New England Glass Company or Boston and Sand- 
wich Glass Company, 1864. 
Ex-collection: George S. McKearin 
Published: Two Hundred Years of American Blown 
Glass, plate 68, no. 1. 

Lent by The Corning Museum of Glass (ace. no. 
55.4.63). 

55. PLAQUE 

Width 3% inches. Length 5% inches. Blown and 
cut, dark blue over clear, engraved landscape of 
lake, castle, and sailing ship within a medallion. 
Perhaps made by Henry Barnes Leighton. About 
1865. 

According to the family, this object was made by 
Henry Barnes Leighton, a son of John H. Leighton. 
Such glass plaques or transparencies probably were 
intended as decorations to be hung in windows. 
Ex-collection: Mrs. W. W. Pike (Mary M. Leighton) 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

56. BEAKER 

Ht 4% inches. Diam. 3% inches. Blown and cut, 
pale ruby, straight sides with slightly flaring lip, cir- 
cular foot, wheel engraved figures of Venus and 
Cupid in a cartouche with flowers and foliage. In- 
scribed on reverse: MV. 
Engraved by Louis Vaupel. About 1865-1870. 



65 



A rare object with wheel engraved figures on the 
surface. Figure representation was uncommon in 
decorating American glass in the 18th and 19th 
centuries. Vaupel's training was in Europe, where 
such representation had a long heritage. 
Ex-collection: Vaupel family. 

Lent by The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (ace. no. 
61.1218). 

57. GOBLET 

Ht. 10 inches. Diameter Ay 2 inches. Blown and 
cut, mercury or silver glass, bowl with straight sides 
and flaring lip, knop above baluster stem, circular 
foot, engraved and etched with flowers, foliage, and 
geometric patterns. Signed under foot: LV. 
Engraved by Louis Vaupel. About 1865-1870. 
An unusual example of the combination of engraving 
by one of the Company's ablest cutters with an ex- 
ceptionally large silver glass object. 
Ex-collection: Vaupel family. 

Lent by The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (ace. no. 
61.1222). 

CUT AND ENGRAVED: LATE PERIOD, 
1870-1888 

58. TUMBLER 

Ht. 3% inches. Blown and cut, clear, fluted lower 
portion of sides, three oval medallions engraved with 
landscapes with castles and towns, inscribed below 
the medallions: Morlik., Friedland., Bebrak. 
Perhaps by Henry Fillebrown. About 1870. 
The cutting may be European, and the object was 
imported as a model for Fillebrown. 
Ex-collection: Sylvestus L. Fillebrown, to 1949. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 54, upper right. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Sylvestus 
L. Fillebrown (ace. no. 49.20). 

59. BOTTLE 

Ht. 6y B inches. Blown and cut, clear, square with 

cut flutes below neck, cartouche inscribed: Little 

Laura. On rev.: 4/years old. 

About 1870. 

The bottle was made for the daughter of John H. 

Leighton, Laura Louise Leighton. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman. 

60. COMPOTE 

Ht. 3% inches. Diam. 8 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear, bowl cut in strawberry diamond pattern, 
scalloped edge, short stem, cut leaf design on base 
of circular foot. 

Perhaps by John Lowry. About 1870-1880. 
The compote was purchased from a member of the 
Lowry family. John Lowry superintended the Com- 
pany's cutting department between 1850-1880. 
Ex-collection: John Lowry 

Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 58-C. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay Fund 
(ace. no. 45.145-5). 

61. COMPOTE 

Ht. 7% inches. Diam. 8 inches. Blown and cut, 
clear, bowl cut in flutes and strawberry diamond 



pattern, scalloped edge, panelled stem, circular foot 

with star cut pattern. 

About 1872-1876. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Charles X. Dalton, Somerville, 

Mass. 

Published: W. E. Fairfield, Fire and Sand, Cleveland, 

1960, p. 5. 

Toledo Museum News, Summer 1961, 

vol. 4, no. 3, p. 67. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 59.25). 

62. GOBLET 

Ht. 4-7/16 inches. Blown and cut, clear, conical 
bowl on baluster stem, circular foot with star cut- 
ting, engraved on bowl with a pine tree and leaf 
sprigs: New Engld. /Glass Co./Boston. On rev.: 
Mass. Centl./Head Qrs. 
About 1876. 

This object and the decanter were made for the 
Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia. 
Ex-collection: George S. McKearin 
Published: Antiques, August 1939, p. 78, fig. 2. 

Two Hundred Years of American Blown 

Glass, plate 60, no. 2. 
Lent by The Corning Museum of Glass (ace. no. 
55.4.64). 

63. DECANTER 

Ht. 10% inches. Blown and cut, clear, square body 

with sloping sides, slender neck with flaring lip, 

faceted ring on neck, faceted stopper, inscribed on 

body: New Engld. /Glass Co./Boston. On reverse: 

Mass. Centl./Head Qrs. 

About 1876. 

Decanter made by the Company for the Centennial 

Exposition, Philadelphia. Probably part of a set that 

includes the goblet lent by The Corning Museum of 

Glass. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin 

Published: Antiques, April 1952, p .331, lower right. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 48.4 

A-B). 

64. GOBLET 

Ht. 6Vi inches. Blown and ,cut, clear bulbous bowl 
with flaring neck cut in hobnail diamond pattern, 
baluster stem, circular foot cut in star and fan on 
base. 

About 1876. 

The Company's glass exhibition at the Centennial 
Exposition, Philadelphia, displayed cut glass, pri- 
marily, in elaborate patterns. A number of goblets 
in various sizes were in the style of this goblet. 
John Lowry was Superintendent of the Company's 
cutting department at that time. 
Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 58-D. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay Fund 
(ace. no. 45.143-6). 

65. BOWL 

Ht. 2% inches. Diam. 3% inches. Blown, opaque 

pink over opaque white, engraved flower frieze in 

swags, gold enamel band near top edge. 

About 1880. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 



66 



Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 69-B. 

Lent by The Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay Fund 

(ace. no. 45.143-7). 

66. BOTTLE 

Ht. 7% inches. Blown and cut, clear, square with 
faceted neck and shoulder, body cut with bands of 
sharp diamonds, flowers and foliage, sharp dia- 
monds, star cut base. Inscribed on body: MAD/1887. 
1887. 

Made for Mrs. William F. Donovan. Her husband 
joined the Company about 1880 and went to Toledo 
when the firm ceased operations in East Cambridge 
in 1888. 

Ex-collection: Mr. and Mrs. William F. Donovan 
Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

BOHEMIAN STYLE 

67. GOBLET 

Ht. 5V4 inches. Blown and cut, ruby over clear, en- 
graved with a view of the Boston State House on the 
fluted surface of the vessel, short stem joined to 
the ten-sided foot. Inscribed beneath the view: 
STATE HOUSE, BOSTON. Foliage elements at cor- 
ners of engraved view. 
About 1840. 
Ex-collection: James F. Barnes 

George S. McKearin 
Published: American Glass, plate 58-A, no. 6. 
Lent by The Henry Ford Museum 
(ace. no. 60.10.89B). 

68. GOBLET 

Ht. 5 l A inches. Blown and cut, ruby over clear, en- 
graved with a view of the White House, Washington, 
D. C, on the fluted surface of the vessel, short stem 
joined to ten-sided foot. Inscribed beneath the view: 
THE PRESIDENT'S HOUSE, WASHINGTON. Foliage 
elements at corners of engraved view. 
About 1840. 
Ex-collection: James F. Barnes 

George S. McKearin 
Published: American Glass, plate 58-A, no. 10. 
Lent by The Henry Ford Museum 
(ace. no.10.10.89A). 

69. TUMBLER 

Ht. 6 inches. Blown and cut, ruby over clear, cut in 

geometric pattern or roundels and arches, with gold 

enamel decoration of stars and bands, indented 

upper rim, banded in gold enamel, faceted foot. 

Probably New England Glass Company. About 1850- 

1860. 

Ex-collection: Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus, to 1913. 

Published: Antiques, July 1960, p. 59. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 13.529). 

70. GOBLET 

Ht. l x /2 inches. Blown and cut, ruby over clear on 
eight-sided bowl, with clear panelled stem on eight- 
sided foot, rectangle on bowl for monogram or 
crest suggests this piece is a blank intended for 
engraving. 

Probably The New England Glass Company. About 
1850-1860. 
Ex-collection: Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus, to 1913. 



Published: D. Daniel, Cut and Engraved Glass, N.Y., 

1950, plate 30, below. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 13.530). 

71. TUMBLER 

Ht. 3Vk inches. Blown, ruby, with etched frieze of 

grapes and foliage. 

About 1860-1870. 

Ex-collection: Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus, to 1913. 

Published: D. Daniel, Cut and Engraved Glass, N.Y., 

1950, plate 33, lower right. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 13.542). 

72. WINE GLASS 

Ht. 4% inches. Blown, ruby over clear, with en- 
graved design of grapes and foliage. Straight stem, 
circular foot. Inscribed on base: LT-CH /Pattern/ 
No.43/Vaupel/239. 

Engraved by Louis Vaupel. About 1856-1865. 
Ex-collection: Mrs. Hamilton, Somerville, Mass. 

Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 50-C. 

D. Daniel, Cut and Engraved Glass, N.Y., 

1950, plate 32, lower left. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum (ace. no. 45.143-11). 

73. THREE PIECE TOILET SET 

Ht. (decanter with stopper) 9% inches. Ht. (cov- 
ered jar) 3% inches. Blown, cut, ruby, and decorated 
with gold enamel. Cut arch pattern on decanters; 
gold enamel foliage and flowers on decanter and jar. 
About 1860-1870. 

Made by John H. Leighton for his daughter, Mary 
May Leighton. A similarly designed set in green 
glass was made by Leighton for another daughter. 
Ex-collection: Mrs. W. W. Pike (Mary M. Leighton) 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 57. 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

74. PRESENTATION GOBLET 

Ht. 14 inches. Diam. 6V4 inches. Blown and cut, 
ruby over clear, ruby bowl on clear, hollow stem, 
star-cut circular foot, engraved with foliage and a 
crest on the bowl, inscribed: Frederick William Wood- 
house. 

Marked on stem in a rectangle: N. E. Glass Co. 
About 1870. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

MOLD BLOWN 

75. SUGAR BOWL WITH COVER 

Ht. 5 3 /4 inches. Width 334 inches. Length 5V4 
inches. Mold blown, clear, rectangular shape, dia- 
mond diapering between two bands of vertical ribs 
on long sides, vertical ribs on two ends, fitted lid 
of vertical ribs with button finial. 
About 1820. 

The design of this sugar bowl is thought to be in- 
spired by an English pottery example. Many mold 
blown objects made by the Company have thick 
walls, with an appearance of pressed glass and lit- 
tle relationship of inner surface to the contour of the 
outer surface. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1953. 
Published: Antiques, August 1939, p. 69, fig. 4. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 53.14). 



67 



76. LAMP 

Ht. 5% inches. Diam. 5 inches. Blown three-mold, 
clear, globular font in McKearin pattern G 11-18, 
solid stem and button knop, saucer base in Mc- 
Kearin pattern G 1-20. 

Probably New England Glass Company. About 1820- 
1830. 

Lamps in the blown three-mold technique are rare. 
Peg lamps have been found in this font pattern. 
Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 
Published: Two Hundred Years of American Blown 

Glass, plate 94, p. 308, no. 2. 

Antiques, June 1956, p. 519, no. 8. 
Lent by The Corning Museum of Glass (ace. no. 
55.4.243). 

77. JAR 

Ht. 6 inches. Blown three-mold, deep blue glass, 

vertical ribs, tooled lip. McKearin pattern G 1-15. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. 1820- 

1830. 

A similar jar is in the collection of Old Sturbridge 

Village. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin, to 1959. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 58.83). 

78. FLASK 

One-half pint. Mold blown, olive green, oval body 
with short neck, Masonic arch and symbols on ob- 
verse, eagle and initials in an oval on reverse. Mc- 
Kearin pattern G IV-26. Marked in oval: NEG. 
Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 
1820-1830. 
Lent by Charles B. Gardner. 

79. FLASK 

Pint. Mold blown, aqua, oval body with short neck, 
Masonic arch and symbols on obverse, eagle and 
initials in beaded oval on reverse. McKearin pattern 
G IV-27. Marked in oval: NEG/Co. 
Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 
1820-1830. 

Another flask associated with the Company (Mc- 
Kearin pattern G IV-15) is marked in an oval: N. G. 
Co. 
Lent by Charles B. Gardner. 

80. FLASK 

Quart. Mold blown, light green, round body with 
plain, short neck, circular ribs surrounding initials 
in center. McKearin pattern G 11-77. Marked on ob- 
verse: NG/Co. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 
1820-1850. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 
Lent by George Austin. 

81. SALT CELLAR 

• Ht. 2 inches. Diam. 2% inches. Blown three-mold, 
clear, octagonal shape, patterned with alternate 
vertical ribs and diamond diapering. Polished rim. 
About 1820-1840. 

An advertisement in the Boston Commercial Gazette, 
July 22, 1824, mentions "moulded, octagon, oval 
and round Dishes," which may refer to salts as 
well as bowls of various sizes. 



Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1953. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 46-D. 

Antiques, August 1939, pp. 68-70, fig. 

1-B (lower). 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 
53.18-A). 

82. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. l 5 / 8 inches. Diam. 2% inches. Blown three-mold, 

clear, round with diamond-diapering and vertical 

pattern. Polished rim. 

About 1820-1840. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1953. 

Published: Antiques, August 1939, pp. 68-70, fig. 

ID (lower). 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 

53.18B). 

83. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 1% inches. Diam. 2 l / & inches. Blown three-mold, 

clear, rectangular shape with diamond diapering and 

"fan" end. Polished rim. 

About 1820-1840. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1953. 

Published: Antiques, August 1939, pp. 68-70, fig. 

1-A (upper). 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 

53.18C). 

84. DISH 

Ht. 1% inches. Width 4V 2 inches. Length 6V 8 
inches. Blown three-mold, clear, octagonal shape 
with diamond diapering on four sides above vertical 
ribs, with fan ribs at four corners. Star pattern of 
radiating ribs in base. Polished rim. 
About 1820-1840. 

Such mold blown pieces usually have polished rims, 
probably due to the formation of an irregular edge 
in the mold which was ground off on a wheel. 
Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

85. BOWL 

Ht. 1% inches. Width 6% inches. Length 8 inches. 
Mold blown, clear, octagonal shape with diamond 
diapering above vertical rib pattern on four sides, 
with fan ribs at four corners. Star pattern of radi- 
ating ribs in base. Polished rim. 
About 1820-1840. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1953. 
Published: Antiques, August 1939, fig. 3-B. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 53.15). 

86. BOWL 

Ht. 1% inches. Length 8 5 / 8 inches. Mold blown, 

clear, oval shape with diamond diapering above 

vertical rib pattern, star pattern of radiating ribs in 

base. Polished rim. 

About 1820-1840. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1953. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 53.17). 

87. BOWL 

Ht. 1% inches. Diam. 8Vs inches. Mold blown, 
clear, round shape, diamond diapering with star 
pattern of radiating ribs in base. Polished rim. 
About 1820-1840. 
Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1953. 



68 



Published: Antiques, August 1939, p. 69, fig. 3-A. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 53.16). 

88. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. IV2 inches. Width 2 inches. Length 2-15/16 

inches. Mold blown, clear, scalloped edge, eight 

point star centered in a square base. 

About 1825. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 

Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 38-A. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman. 

89. PITCHER 

Ht. 7Vs inches. Blown three-mold, clear, solid 

handle with thumbrest attached to straight-sided 

body in McKearin pattern G IV-6. Wide neck with 

tooled horizontal ribbing. 

Probably The New England Glass Company. About 

1820-1830. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 

Published: Two Hundred Years of American Blown 

Glass, plate 43, p. 206, no. 4 . 

Lent by The Corning Museum of Glass (ace. no. 

55.4.222). 

90. PITCHER 

Ht. 7% inches. Blown three-mold, clear, McKearin 
pattern G 11-10, with tooled pouring lip, applied 
handle, nine-sided base. 

Attributed to' New England Glass Company. About 
1820-1840. 

A similar pitcher is in the collection of The Benning- 
ton Museum. 
Lent by Old Sturbridge Village (ace. no. 13.36.34). 

91. PITCHER 

Ht. 5% inches. Mold blown, clear, heavy horizontal 

ribs around body with tooled lip and applied, hollow 

handle. 

Probably New England Glass Company. About 1830. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Sampson. 

92. BOTTLE 

Ht. 10% inches. Mold blown, ruby glass with tooled 

lip, wheel-engraved grapes and foliage around body 

with thin band of leaves around neck. 

About 1840. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 

Lent by Mrs. Peter D. Alden. 

93. PAIR OF DECANTERS 

Ht. 10% inches. Blown three-mold, clear, McKearin 

pattern G V-17 (Horn of Plenty) with mushroom 

shape stoppers of pressed glass, with wide rim on 

lip and two rings on neck. 

The New England Glass Company or Boston and 

Sandwich Glass Company. About 1840. 

Ex-collection: Channing Hare and Mountfort Cool- 

idge, to 1957. 

Lent by The Bennington Museum and Art Gallery 

(ace. no. CH 156). 

94. CARAFE AND TUMBLER 

Ht. (carafe) 8 inches. Ht. (tumbler) 3% inches. 
Mold blown, clear, spiral ribbing with applied chain 
around neck of carafe. 
About 1850. 



Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 58-A and B. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum (ace. no. 45.143-9). 

95. PAIR OF CURTAIN KNOBS 

Diam. 3 l / 2 inches. Length 3 l / B inches. Mold blown, 
mercury or silver glass with pewter fixtures on 
stems, six point rosette molded in surface. Marked 
on pewter: N.E. GLASS Co. PATENTED JAN. 16 1855. 
A few silver glass objects are marked by the Com- 
pany with a plug inserted in the glass base. 
Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

96. PERFUME BOTTLE 

Ht. 414 inches. Mold blown, clear, with mercury and 

deep rose stain in glass, six-sided tier shape with 

wide lip. 

About 1860-1870. 

Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 79-C (center). 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

EARLY PRESSED, SALT CELLARS, CUP 
PLATES 

97. SUGAR BOWL 

Ht. 3 l / 2 inches. Length 5% inches. Pressed, clear, 

beaded rim with vertical ribs at four corners and 

diamond pattern on sides, on four paw feet. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820-1830. 

Published: The Story of American Pressed Glass of 

the Lacy Period, Corning Museum of Glass, plate III, 

no. 48. 

Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

98. PITCHER 

Ht. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, horizontal ribs 
beneath a heart on each side, applied solid handle, 
on four feet. 

Attributed to The New England Glass Company. 
About 1820-1830. 

Compare with Smithsonian Institution example illus- 
trated in The Story of American Pressed Glass of 
the Lacy Period, Corning Museum of Glass, plate 
IV, no. 49. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

99. SUGAR BOWL WITH COVER 

Ht. 5V4 inches. Length 4 inches. Pressed, clear, 
horizontal ribs on bowl and cover, with ring handle 
at each end and medallion on each side. Cover with 
four steps and knob, marked with diamond point 
inside cover: 80. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 
1820-1830. 

A similar object is illustrated in Antiques, October 
1947, p. 276, fig. 2. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 
100. PITCHER 

Ht. 414 inches. Diam. 6 inches. Pressed, clear, 
rectangular body on four feet with scrolled apron, 
ribbed handle, horizontal ribs on body. 
About 1820-1830. 



69 



Published: Antiques, October 1947, p. 275, fig 1 — 

Lent by The Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lura W. 
Watkins, 1951 (ace. no. 391.243). 

101. PITCHER 

Ht. 3 l / 2 inches. Length 6 inches. Pressed, clear, 

rectangular body on four feet with scrolled apron, 

scrolls flanked by hearts on front and sides, applied 

handle. 

About 1820-1830. 

Published: Antiques, October 1947, p. 275, fig. 1 — 

left. 

Lent by The Smithsonian Institution, gift of Lura W. 

Watkins, 1951 (ace. no. 391.242). 

102. PAIR OF LAMPS 

Ht. 10% inches. Blown and pressed, opaque white 
conical fonts joined to pedestal base with three 
wafers, opalescent white pressed square base 
decorated with a lion's head at each corner, fluted 
pilasters below with baskets of fruit in center panels, 
resting on foot of three steps. Impressed in a circle 
inside hollow base: N.E.G.Co./E.R.-S.R. 
About 1830. 

Lamps with bases from the same mold occur in 
clear and light blue glass. Round and cup shape 
blown fonts are known. Lamps with no marks in 
the base are thought to be Boston and Sandwich 
Glass Company examples. The letters "E.R.-S.R." in 
the mark may refer to Enoch Robinson of the Com- 
pany. 

Ex-collection: Henry Ford. 
Lent by The Henry Ford Museum 
(ace. no. 00.3.6446A-B). 

103. PAIR OF LAMPS 

Ht. 8 inches. Blown and pressed, opaque white 

round fonts joined to pedestal base of opalescent 

white glass (base design similar to no. 102 in this 

exhibition). Impressed in a circle inside hollow base: 

N.E.G.Co./E.R.-.S.R. 

About 1830. 

Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

104. PAIR OF LAMPS 

Ht. 11% inches. Blown and pressed, opaque white 
cup-shape fonts joined to pedestal base of opales- 
cent white glass (base design similar to no. 102 
in this exhibition). Clear blown shades. Impressed 
in a circle inside hollow base: N.E.G.Co./E.R.-.S.R. 
About 1830. 
Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

105. DISH 

Ht. 1% inches. Length 7% inches. Pressed, clear, 

oval, with twisted rope rim, strawberry diamond 

pattern on long sides, wheat sheaves at ends and 

base, eight point star in center of base. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820-1830. 

Attribution to a particular glass factory for most 

lacy glass is difficult. The heavy metal, simplicity 

of geometric designs, use of sheaves, and fine 

quality suggest an attribution to the Company. 

Lent by William J. Elsholz. 



106. DISH 

Ht. 1% inches. Length 8% inches. Pressed, clear, 

oval, strawberry diamond pattern in triangles, two 

wheat sheaves flanking circular medallion in base, 

scalloped rim. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820-1830. 

Published: Antiques, March 1954, p. 225, center. 

Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

107. COMPOTE 

Ht. 4Vi inches. Pressed and blown, clear, deep dish 
with heart and shield pattern, attached to solid 
stem with knop, circular foot. About 1820-1830. 
Same design as the plate illustrated in R. W. Lee, 
Early American Pressed Glass, plate 106, lower left. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

108. COMPOTE 

Ht. 3% inches. Diameter 6V2 inches. Pressed, 
opaque opal, strawberry diamond pattern, three 
piece mold, eight point star in underside of base, 
on low circular foot, scalloped rim edge. 
Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. About 1820-1830. 
Published: The Story of American Pressed Glass of 
the Lacy Period, Corning Museum of Glass, no. 53A. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

109. COMPOTE 

Ht. 3% inches. Diameter 6Vi inches. Pressed, clear, 

shield and pine tree design, solid stem with knop 

and circular foot. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820-1830. 

Same design as plate illustrated in Lee, plate 104, 

lower right. 

Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

110. BOWL 

Ht. 2% inches. Diam. 9V 8 inches. Pressed, clear, 
strawberry diamond panels inside rim interspersed 
with eight narrow panels, fan and strawberry-dia- 
mond motif in the center, on four ball feet. 
Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 
1820-1830. 
Published: Antiques, March 1954, p. 226, lower 

right. 

The Story of American Pressed Glass of 

the Lacy Period, Corning Museum of 

Glass, plate XXV, no. 47. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

111. BOWL 

Ht. 2 inches. Diam. 10 inches. Pressed, clear, heart 

and lyre border surrounding strawberry diamond 

pattern and twelve-point leaf cluster in center. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820-1830. 

Published: The Story of American Pressed Glass of 

the Lacy Period, Corning Museum of 

Glass, plate III, no. 45. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

112. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2Va inches. Length 3 inches. Pressed, clear, with 



70 



bowls of fruit, thistle, and beehive motifs. A salt 

from this mold also occurs in purple blue. About 

1825-1850. 

Compare: L. W. and D. B. Neal, Pressed Glass Salt 
Dishes of the Lacy Period, 1825-1850, 
Philadelphia, 1962, p. 16, BH 1. 

113. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 1% inches. Length 2% inches. Pressed, clear, 
with fruit basket, birds at a fountain, rose sprigs, 
and a star motifs. Salts from this mold also occur 
in opalescent, opaque opalescent, opaque white, 
opaque white with blue streaks. About 1825-1850. 
Compare: Neal, p. 17, BB 1. 

114. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2 inches. Length 3% inches. Pressed, clear, 
with fruit basket, birds at a fountain, rose sprigs, 
and star motifs. About 1825-1850. 
Compare: Neal, p. 18, BB 2. 

115. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2 inches. Length 2% inches. Pressed, clear, 
with medallion portraits of Washington and Lafay- 
ette, horizontal ribs, acorn, rose sprig, and leaf 
motifs. About 1825-1850. 
Compare: Neal, p. 117, HL la. 

116. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2 inches. Length 2% inches. Pressed, opaque 
white, with basket of fruit, rose sprigs, and mark 
on base: N.E./GLASS/COMPANY/BOSTON. Salts 
from this mold also occur in opalescent and fiery 
opalescent. About 1825-1850. 
Compare: Neal, p. 137, NE 1. 

117. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2-1/16 inches. Length 2-15/16 inches. Pressed, 

clear, motifs same as Neal NE 1, except it lacks 

twisted rope border upper rim decoration. About 

1825-1850. 

Compare: Neal, p. 139, NE 2. 

118. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2 inches. Length 2% inches. Pressed, clear, 
motifs same as Neal NE 2, except it lacks foliage 
around impressed mark in base. About 1825-1850. 
Compare: Neal, p. 140, NE 3. 

119. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 1-15/16 inches. Length 2% inches. Pressed, 
light green, motifs same as Neal NE 2, except this 
example includes star in base, rim decoration, and 
thorny rose sprigs. Salts from this mold also occur 
in clear glass. 
Compare: Neal, p. 142, NE 5. 

120. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2 inches. Length 2% inches. Pressed, light 

green, motifs nearly identical to Neal NE 5. Salts 

from this mold also occur in clear glass. About 

1825-1850. 

Compare: Neal, p. 143, NE 6. 

121. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 1% inches. Length 3 inches. Pressed, clear, 
horizontal and chevron rib motifs with heart on 
each long side. Salts from this mold also occur in 
clear and purple-blue. About 1825-1850. 



Compare: Neal, p. 147, OG 2. 

Lent by L. W. and D. B. Neal (no. 112-121). 

122. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2 inches. Length 2% inches. Pressed, clear, 

motifs same as Neal NE 1, except it lacks twisted 

rope decoration. About 1825-1850. 

Compare: Neal, p. 141, NE4. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 17.571). 

123. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2 inches. Length 2% inches. Pressed, clear, 
with medallion portraits of Washington and Lafay- 
ette, horizontal ribs, acorn, and rose sprig motifs. 
About 1825-1850. 
Compare: Neal, p. 116, HL 1. 

124. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2-1/16 inches. Length 3 inches. Pressed, clear, 

motifs same as Neal HL 1, except it lacks ribs and 

border surrounding Washington profile. About 1825- 

1850. 

Compare: Neal, p. 118, HL2. 

Lent by Mrs. Louise S. Esterly (no. 123-124). 

125. SALT CELLAR 

Ht. 2 inches. Length 2% inches. Pressed, clear, 
motifs same as Neal HL 2, except inscription WASH- 
INGTON added. About 1825-1850. 
Compare: Neal, p. 119, HL3. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

126. PLATE 

Diam. 5% inches. Pressed, clear, twenty scallops 
around rim interspersed with twenty stars, four-part 
center divided into two sections of strawberry- 
diamond and two sections of rays with eight-point 
star in center. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 
1820-1830. 

This early plate, with its pattern suggested by Eng- 
lish or Irish cut glass, resembles the smaller cup 
plate, Lee-Rose no. 20. 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago, gift of Arthur 
Heun, 1933 (ace. no. 33.1355). 

127. BOWL 

Diam. 6V& inches. Pressed, clear, log cabin in cen- 
ter, around stippled edge of bowl: farmer plowing 
with two horses, sailing ship, farmer plowing with 
one horse, glass factory with two chimneys. 
The New England Glass Company, or Whitney Glass 
Works, Glassboro, New Jersey. About 1840. 
The glass house depicted on the bowl resembles 
closely one illustrated on a Company stock certifi- 
cate, Antiques, July 1935, p. 11, fig. 5. 
Ex-collection: Edwin A. Barber, to 1916. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 794.81). 

128. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Ruth W. Lee and 
J. H. Rose, American Glass Cup Plates, North- 
borough, Mass. 1948, no. 10. 

All cup plates in this exhibition date about 1826- 
1850. 

129. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 2-13/16 inches. Pressed, clear. Rose no. 11. 



71 



130. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 12. 

131. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 13. 

132. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-7/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 16. 

133. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-7/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 20. 

134. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, blue, Rose no. 22. 

135. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-7/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 22B. 

136. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 4V a inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 23. 

137. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 24. 

138. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-7/16 inches. Pressed, blue, Rose no. 25. 

139. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-9/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 26. 

140. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3Vi inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 27. 

141. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 28. 

142. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-11/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 29. 

143. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, amber, Rose no. 30. 

144. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3 J /2 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 31. 

145. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 32. 

146. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3V4 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 33. 

147. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3 l / A inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 35. 

148. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3 l / A inches. Pressed, opal, Rose no. 37. 

149. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 39. 

150. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, blue, Rose no. 40. 

151. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-3/16 inches. Pressed, opal, Rose no. 41. 

152. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3 x / 2 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 42. 

153. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3 l / 2 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 43. 

154. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3V4 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 44. 

155. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-9/16 inches. Pressed, opal, Rose no. 45. 

156. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 51. 

157. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 53. 



158. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 54. 

159. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 55. 

160. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-1/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 56. 

161. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-13/16 inches. Pressed, opal, Rose no. 75A. 

162. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-13/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 76. 

163. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 77. 

164. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-11/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 78. 

165. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 79. 

166. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, opal, Rose no. 80. 

167. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, red opal, Rose no. 81. 

168. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, opaque blue, Rose no. 
82. 

169. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, opaque blue, Rose no. 
84. 

170. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, opaque blue, Rose no. 
85. 

171. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-11/16 inches. Pressed, light cloudy blue, 
Rose no. 88. 

172. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, opaque opal, Rose no. 
89. 

173. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, opaque opal, Rose no. 
90. 

174. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3% inches. Pressed, opaque white, Rose no. 
95. 

175. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3 J /2 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 257. 

176. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3 l / 2 inches. Pressed, opal, Rose no. 258. 

177. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-7/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 259. 

178. CUP PLATE 

* Diam. 3-7/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 260. 

179. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-11/16 inches. Pressed, opal, Rose no. 650. 

180. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-7/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 665. 

181. CUP PLATE 

Diam. 3-7/16 inches. Pressed, clear, Rose no. 665-A. 
Lent by Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth (no. 128-181). 



72 



182. LAMP ON CUP PLATE BASE 

Ht. 5}/s inches. Blown and pressed, clear, font with 

thirteen panels attached to cup plate base. Lee-Rose 

pattern no. 16. 

Perhaps New England Glass Company. About 1820- 

1840. 

Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

183. LAMP ON CUP PLATE BASE 

Ht. 6V2 inches. Blown and pressed, deep blue 
conical font with swirled ribs and short stem, cup 
plate base Lee-Rose pattern no. 43. 
Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 
1820-1830. 

This unique lamp with colored font may be com- 
pared with the lamp (no. 185) owned by Preston 
R. Bassett in this exhibition. 

Published: The Story of American Pressed Glass of 
the Lacy Period, 1825-1850, Corning Museum of 
Glass, p. 72, plate XXV, no. 91. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

184. LAMP ON CUP PLATE BASE 

Ht. 7y a inches. Blown and pressed, clear, conical 
font on solid stem with a wafer joining font to stem 
and a wafer knop, on cup plate base Lee-Rose pat- 
tern no. 54. 
About 1820-1840. 
Lent by Preston R. B.assett. 

185. LAMP ON CUP PLATE BASE 

Ht. 6V2 inches. Blown and pressed, clear glass, 

conical font with swirled ribs attached to solid stem 

by wide wafer, cup plate base Lee-Rose pattern no. 

50. 

About 1820-1840. 

The swirled ribs of the font and the wide wafer of 

the stem indicate NEGC origin and not Boston and 

Sandwich Glass Company. 

Lent by Preston R. Bassett. 

186. LAMP ON CUP PLATE BASE 

Ht. 8 inches. Blown and pressed, clear glass, conical 

font on solid stem with wafer knop connected to 

font and base by wafers, cup plate base Lee-Rose 

pattern no. 16. 

About 1830-1840. 

Font is fitted with brass cap to hold burner in this 

whale oil lamp. 

Lent by Preston R. Bassett. 

187. VASE 

Ht. 11 14 inches. Pressed, blue ; conical bowl with 
slender loops or panels, gaffered rim, stem at- 
tached to marble base. 
About 1850. 

The Magoun patent of 1847 devised a way of press- 
ing glass that left no visible mold marks. Marks 
were positioned on the edges of the mold. This 
method was used by the Company until about 1861. 
Lent by James H. Rose. 

188. VASE 

Ht. 8V2 inches. Pressed, green, conical bowl with 
circles above oval loops or panels, gaffered rim, 
on" paneled stem and foot. 
About 1850. 



This object probably was made under the Company's 

Magoun patent. 

Lent by James H. Rose. 

BLOWN AND PRESSED LAMPS 

189. LAMP 

Ht. 11% inches. Blown and pressed, clear, bulbous 
font with mercury equator, hollow stem attached to 
thick, pressed, square base. Five attached rings 
around stem. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 
1820. 

The early lamps attributed to the Company may 
have been made by George Flowers, who was associ- 
ated with Emmett and Fisher at the Boston Porcelain 
and Glass Company before going to the New Eng- 
land Glass Company, where he remained until 1828. 
Lent by Preston R. Bassett. 

190. LAMP 

Ht. 7 inches. Blown and pressed, clear, bulbous 

font with mercury equator, four-step base with 

rayed interior. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820. 

Lent by Preston R. Bassett. 

191. LAMP 

Ht. 4% inches. Diam. A l / B inches. Blown, clear, 

bulbous font, with deep blue foot and folded rim. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820. 

Lent by Preston R. Bassett. 

192. LAMP 

Ht. 6% inches. Diam. A l / 2 inches. Blown, clear 

bulbous font, deep blue foot with folded rim, solid 

stem with knop. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820. 

Lent by Preston R. Bassett. 

193. LAMP 

Ht. 10Vi inches. Blown and pressed, bulbous font 

with mercury equator, with hollow baluster stem 

with guilloche around widest part, on a square, 

rayed base. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1820. 

Although the guilloche decoration is often identified 

with the South Boston Glass Company, it is thought 

that this lamp and certain other items of heavy 

lead glass with guilloche were made by workers 

(such as George Flowers) who moved on to the 

New England Glass Company. South Boston objects 

generally are lighter than Company pieces. 

Lent by Preston R. Bassett. 

194. LAMP 

Ht. 3Vi inches. Blown, clear, round font and stem 
with knop, joined to circular foot. 
About 1830. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 



73 



195. LAMP 

Ht. 11-15/16 inches. Blown, pressed, and cut, 

clear, font and stem cut in diamond facets, joined 

to a four step pressed base by two wafers. 

Cut by Joseph Burdakin. About 1830. 

Burdakin was employed at the Company by 1827 

as a cutter. He was the father-in-law of Henry 

Fillebrown, who was the father of the donor, Syl- 

vestus L. Fillebrown. The Fillebrowns also worked 

for the Company. 

Ex-collection: S. L. Fillebrown, to 1949. 

Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 62. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 49.21). 

196. LAMP 

Ht. 16% inches. Blown, tooled, and etched, black- 
purple stem and circular foot, frosted globe, astral- 
type lamp. Marked with metal plate near burner: 
N.E. GLASS Co./BOSTON. 
About 1830-1850. 

A similar lamp is in the Henry F. Du Pont Winter- 
thur Museum. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

197. PAIR OF LAMPS 

Ht. 16% inches. Blown, pressed, and cut, clear and 
frosted shades with cut decoration, eight-sided 
knops in baluster stem, with clear, cut and pressed 
base. Marked on brass fixture: N.E. GLASS Co./ 
BOSTON. Marked on base (in rectangle): N.E. 
GLASS Co. 
About 1835-1845. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

198. PAIR OF LAMPS 

Ht. 8% inches. Blown and pressed, opaque white 

round fonts joined to clear, three-part hollow stem 

by a wafer. Stem attached to pressed, square base 

by a wafer. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1835. 

This piece was acquired from a Boston family, the 

original owners, who considered it a product of the 

Company. 

Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

199. LAMP 

Ht. 8% inches. Blown and pressed, clear, pear 
shape font with wheel-engraved grapes and foliage, 
joined to four step base, pressed scalloped foot by 
threaded knop. 
About 1840. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 63. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

200. LAMP 

Ht. 18% inches. Blown, clear and frosted shade with 
wheel-engraved grapes and foliage around bowl, 
black baluster stem with three wafers at brass fix- 
ture, stem joined to circular foot by three wafers, 
blown font of clear glass. Marked on fixture above 
stem: N. E.G. Co. 
About 1850-1860. 
Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 



201. RAILROAD LANTERN 

Ht. 9% inches. Blown clear globe, metal fittings 

with punched star and cornucopia decoration. 

Marked underneath base: PATENT APPLIED FOR 

N. E. GLASS CO. 

About 1854. 

Rare, only example known with this marking. 

Lent by Preston R. Bassett. 

202. RAILROAD LANTERN 

Ht. (globe) 5% inches. Blown ruby globe, font and 

burner intact, metal fittings. Marked underneath 

base: N.E. GLASS Co./PATENTED OCT. 24 1854. 

About 1854-1855. 

Such railroad lanterns often were engraved with 

the line's initials on the globe. 

Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

203. LAMP 

Ht. 9% inches. Blown and pressed, light green pear 
shape font with gold enamel decoration, square 
base and stem of black glass. 
About 1865. 
Ex-collection: George Dale 

Mrs. A. R. Barker 
Published: Cambridge Glass, p. 142, plate 64-B. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. Dale Barker: George Dale 
Collection. 

PATTERN GLASS AND LATE PRESSED 

204. TRAY 

Ht. 1% inches. Length 8% inches. Pressed, and 
cut, clear, octagonal shape, with Victoria and Albert 
medallion in center of base, grapes and foliage 
engraved on exterior sides of tray, inscribed: John 
H./Leighton. Medallion (taken from a medal) in- 
scribed: VICTORIA D.G. BRIT. REG. F.D. ALBERTUS 
PRINCEPS CONJUX MDCCCLI W. WYON R.A. 
ROYAL MINT. 
1851. 

William Wyon (1795-1851), English medallist and 
chief engraver for The Royal Mint, 1828-1851. One 
of his last works was a Great Exhibition medal bear- 
ing portraits of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. 
Ex-collection: John H. Leighton 

Mrs. W. W. Pike (Mary M. Leighton) 
Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

205. DISH WITH COVER 

Ht. 3% inches. Pressed, alabaster white, fourteen 

panels in body and cover, with simple button knob 

on cover. 

About 1865-1870. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. W. W. Pike (Mary M. Leighton) 

Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 38-B. 

Lent by Miss Marion H. Pike. 

206. PAIR OF CANDLESTICKS 

Ht. 7 inches. Pressed, amethyst, columnar shape of 
six sides, with large nozzle, hexagonal base. 
About 1865-1870. 

Compare with Cambridge Glass, plate 45, row 5-C. 
Lent by The Henry F. Du Pont Winterthur Museum 
(ace. no. 61.1724.2A-B). 



74 



207. CANDLESTICK 

Ht. 7^2 inches. Pressed, clear, columnar shape with 

large nozzle, on circular foot. 

About 1870. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Charles X. Dalton, Somerville, 

Mass. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 59.26). 

208. CANDLESTICK 

Ht. 9% inches. Pressed, opalescent white, caryatid 
figure on a stepped base, supporting the nozzle on 
her head. 
About 1870. 

Long considered Sandwich glass, this pressed pat- 
tern was assigned to the Company in a pattern dis- 
covered by A. C. Revi and discussed by him in an 
article in The Spinning Wheel, October 1960. 
Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of 
Mrs. E. W. Miles, 1946. (ace. no. 46.140.320). 

209. PAIR OF CANDLESTICKS 

Ht. 9% inches. Pressed, green, caryatid figure on a 

stepped base, supporting the nozzle on her head. 

About 1870. 

Compare with single candlestick in opalescent white 

glass (no. 208). 

Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

210. COLOGNE BOTTLE 

Ht. 6% inches. Pressed, purple, octagonal body. 
Marked on base in rectangle: N. E. GLASS Co. 
About 1865-1870. 
Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

211. COLOGNE BOTTLE 

Ht. 4% inches. Pressed, emerald green, hexagonal 

shape with raised crosshatched hexagonal panels. 

About 1870. 

Compare with bottle illustrated in Cambridge Glass, 

plate 45, row 2-B. 

Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

212. COLOGNE BOTTLE 

Ht. 6% inches. Pressed, peacock blue, hexagonal 

shape with six projecting sections at base, gold 

enamel decoration. 

About 1870. 

Compare with bottle illustrated in Cambridge Glass, 

plate 45, row 1-D. 

Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

213. VASE OR TUMBLER 

Ht. 6-13/16 inches. Diam. 514 inches. Pressed, 

clear, Ashburton pattern. 

About 1845-1875. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 

Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

214. SUGAR BOWL WITH COVER 

Ht. 7V2 inches. Pressed, opalescent and clear with 

blue effects, depressed panels on bowl and cover, 

circular foot. Ashburton pattern. 

About 1850. 

Heavy pontil and prominent chill marks suggest that 

this is an early example of Ashburton pattern glass, 

popular until about 1875. 

Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of 



Mrs. E. W. Miles, 1946 (ace. no. 46.140.336 a&b) 

215. SUGAR BOWL WITH COVER 

Ht. 8 inches. Pressed, clear, narrow vertical ribs on 
lower portion of bowl and upper portion of cover, 
three piece mold, circular foot. Blaze pattern. 
About 1850-1870. 
Lent by Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 

216. SUGAR BOWL WITH COVER 

Ht. 5% inches. Pressed, ultramarine blue, Cali- 
fornia pattern. 
About 1865-1870. 
Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

217. PITCHER 

Ht. 5Vi inches. Pressed, yellow, California pattern. 

About 1865-1870. 

Unique color. 

Lent by William J. Elsholz. 

218. PITCHER 

Ht. 5 inches. Pressed, clear, with pressed loop 

handle, circular foot with swirled diamond and dots, 

paneled bowl with arabesques of scrolls and foliage. 

California pattern. 

About 1865-1870. 

Compare Cambridge Glass, plate 44, row 3-C. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 

Lent by The Brooklyn Museum (ace. no. 45.143-41). 

219. PITCHER 

Ht. 5 inches. Pressed, clear, California pattern. 

About 1865-1870. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 

Lent by The Corning Museum of Glass (ace. no. 

50.4.206). 

220. COMPOTE 

Ht. 6% inches. Diam. 7% inches. Pressed, clear, 

vertical ribs on bowl, hollow stem of eight panels, 

scalloped foot. Fine Rib pattern. 

About 1850-1870. 

Lent by Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 

221. COMPOTE WITH COVER 

Ht. 5% inches. Pressed, clear, vertical panels on 

bowl and cover engraved with grapes and flowers, 

short stem, circular foot. Huber pattern. 

About 1870. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Charles X. Dalton, Somerville, 

Mass. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 59.27 

A&B). 

222. COMPOTE 

Ht. 8% inches. Pressed, clear, 21 vertical panels on 

bowl with scalloped edge, hollow stem, circular foot 

with scalloped edge. Huber pattern. 

About 1840-1870. 

Ex-collection: Hugh J. Smith, to 1949. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Hugh 

J. Smith, 1949 (ace. no. 49.2). 

223. SUGAR BOWL WITH COVER 

Ht. 9% inches. Pressed, clear, six panels of ovals, 
arches, and circles around bowl, on paneled stem 
and circular foot. Three piece mold. Lawrence (Bull's 
Eye) pattern. 



75 



About 1850-1870. 
Lent by Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 
224. PITCHER 

Ht. 6V2 inches. Pressed, clear, large diamond pat- 
tern on bowl, solid applied handle, short stem, cir- 
cular foot. Mitre Diamond pattern. 
About 1840-1870. 

This pattern also was produced at Sandwich and 
Pittsburgh. 

Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of Mrs. 
E. W. Miles, 1946 (ace. no. 46.140.824). 
COMPOTE WITH COVER 



225 



226 



227 



228 



229 



230 



231 



Ht. IOV2 inches. Diam. 8% inches. Pressed, clear, 
coarse diamonds covering bowl and cover, descend- 
ing in size to top of cover and stem area, circular 
foot. Mitre Diamond (Sawtooth) pattern. 
About 1840-1870. 
Lent by Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 
PITCHER 

Ht. 6 5 / 8 inches. Pressed, clear, three pineapple 
motifs around bowl, applied handle, tooled pouring 
lip, circular foot. Three piece mold. New England 
Pineapple pattern. 
About 1850-1875. 
Lent by Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 
SUGAR BOWL OR GOBLET 

Ht. 5% inches. Pressed, clear, almond shape de- 
pressions around bowl, paneled stem on circular 
foot. Three piece mold. New York (Almond Thumb- 
print) pattern. 
About 1850-1875. 
Lent by Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 
GOBLET 

Ht. 5% inches. Pressed, clear, diamond pattern on 
bowl, paneled stem on circular foot. Sharp diamond 
pattern. 

About 1840-1870. 
Pressed in full-size two piece mold. 
Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 
Lent by The Corning Museum of Glass (ace. no. 
50.4.386). 
COMPOTE 

Ht. 8 inches. Diam. 8^4 inches. Pressed, clear, dia- 
mond pattern on bowl, paneled stem, circular foot. 
Sharp diamond pattern. 
About 1840-1870. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Owens- 
Illinois Glass Company, 1951 (ace. no. 51.185). 
PITCHER 

Ht. 9 inches. Pressed, clear, diamond pattern sur- 
rounding bowl, fluted base, applied solid handle. 
Sharp Diamond pattern. 
About 1840-1870. 

Compare with blown three mold object in this pat- 
tern (no. 90). 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Owens- 
Illinois Glass Company, 1951 (ace. no. 51.184). 
CELERY VASE 

Ht. IOV4 inches. Pressed, clear, oval thumbprints 
depressed in bowl, with scalloped rim, paneled stem 



on circular foot. Thumbprint pattern. 

About 1860-1870. 

Lent by Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 

232. COMPOTE AND COVER 

Ht. 10% inches. Diam. 7-1/16 inches. Pressed, 

clear, hexagonal motifs on compote and cover, 

paneled stem on circular foot. Faceted finial on 

cover. Vernon pattern. 

About 1850-1875. 

This pattern also made at Pittsburgh, where it was 

called Honeycomb. 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago, gift of Arthur 

Heun, 1933 (ace. no. 33.1398). 

233. SUGAR BOWL WITH COVER 

Ht. 9 inches. Pressed, clear, octagonal depressions 
covering bowl and cover, on paneled stem, circular 
foot. Three piece mold. Vernon (Honeycomb) pat- 
tern. 

About 1850-1875. 
Lent by Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 

234. TUMBLER 

Ht. 4% inches. Pressed, clear, six alternating panels 
of rectangular diamonds and double depressed cir- 
cles. Waffle and Thumbprint (Palace) pattern. 
About 1865-1870. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum (ace. no. 45.143-47). 

235. COMPOTE 

Ht. 7 inches. Diam. 7Vi inches. Pressed, clear, six 
panels of waffles alternating with six panels of de- 
pressed circles around bowl, hollow paneled stem, 
circular foot. Waffle and Thumbprint (Palace) pat- 
tern. 

About 1850-1870. 
Lent by Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 

236. COMPOTE WITH COVER 

Ht. IO14 inches. Pressed, clear, alternating de- 
pressed oval panels and three circles in vertical 
arrangement, solid finial on cover, hollow stem, 
circular foot. Washington pattern. 
About 1848-1870. 

Ex-collection: Hugh J. Smith, to 1948. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Hugh J. 
Smith, 1948 (ace. no. 48.24 A&B). 

237. DECANTER WITH STOPPER 

Ht. 13% inches. Pressed, clear, alternating de- 
pressed oval panels and three circles in vertical 
arrangement, slender neck with paneled stopper. 
Washington pattern. 
About 1848-1870. 

Ex-collection: Hugh J. Smith, to 1948. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Hugh J. 
Smith, 1948 (ace. no. 48.23 a&b). 

238. PAPERWEIGHT SEAL 

Length 3Vi inches. Cut, clear glass encasing mille- 
fiori canes and a twist stem in red, white and blue. 
Inscribed on seal surface: J.F.B. 
Probably New England Glass Company; perhaps 
Hobbs, Barnes and Company. About 1840-1845. 
Seal made for James F. Barnes, son of James B. 
Barnes, who was an early associate of the Company. 
Ex-collection: James F. Barnes 



76 



Mrs. Mallory 
(granddaughter of Barnes) 

Published: American Glass, p. 413, plate 214, no. 10. 

Lent by The Henry Ford Museum (ace. no. 60.10.92). 

239. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2% inches. Blown, clear glass, encasing 
opaque white portraits of Victoria and Albert in pro- 
file to left. 
About 1851-1855. 

Another double portrait of Victoria and Albert, taken 
from a commemorative medal, occurs in hexagonal 
paperweights and certain pressed pieces, such as 
the tray in this exhibition, no. 204. These objects 
were made at the time of the Great Exhibition of 
1851 — and afterwards. 
Ex-collection: Evangeline H. Bergstrom. 
Published: Old Glass Paperweights, p. 94, plate 61. 
Lent by John Nelson Bergstrom Art Center (ace. no. 
185). 

240. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2% inches. Blown, clear over aquamarine 

base, five bouquets of flowers and canes in center. 

One cane dated 1852. 

1852. 

A very rare, dated paperweight. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. George W. Stedman. 

241. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 3% inches. Blown and wheel-engraved, sil- 
vered or mercury glass, with engraved sprays of 
flowers and foliage engraved. Marked on plug in 
base: NEGCo. 
About 1855. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 
Published: Antiques, October 1942, p. 185, fig. 5. 
Lent by The Brooklyn Museum (ace. no. 45.143-27). 

242. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2 l / 2 inches. Blown, clear glass, with cluster 

of small fruits and leaves on a latticinio background. 

About 1860. 

Compare with example in Cambridge Glass, plate 

61-A, no. 3. 

Ex-collection: Edwin Atlee Barber, to 1916. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 17.489). 

243. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2% inches. Blown, clear glass, with deep 
rose-colored flowers and green leaves on a latticinio 
background. 

New England Glass Company or Boston and Sand- 
wich Glass Company. About 1860. 
Ex-collection: Edwin Atlee Barber, to 1916. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 17.486). 

244. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2% inches. Blown, greenish amber pear with 

black stem on a clear glass pad. 

About 1860. 

Lent by John Nelson Bergstrom Art Center (ace. no. 

471). 

245. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2% inches. Blown, yellow quince on clear 
square base. 



About 1860. 

Ex-collection: Evangeline H. Bergstrom. 

Lent by John Nelson Bergstrom Art Center (ace. no. 

491). 

246. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2V4 inches. Blown, amber apple on clear 

circular base. 

About 1860. 

Ex-collection: Evangeline H. Bergstrom. 

Lent by John Nelson Bergstrom Art Center (ace. no. 

97). 

247. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2-7/16 inches. Clear, encasing air bubbles in 

symmetrical pattern. 

Probably New England Glass Company. About 1860- 

1870. 

Compare with example in Cambridge Glass, plate 

61-C. 

Ex-collection: Edwin Atlee Barber, to 1916. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 17.480). 

248. PAPERWEIGHT 

Ht. 1% inches. Length 4Vs inches. Pressed, opaque 

white glass in form of English bulldog on an oval 

base. 

About 1860-1870. 

This type of paperweight was also made in black 

glass, sometimes decorated with gold enamel. They 

were listed in The New England Glass Company's 

pressed glass catalogue of 1869. This example was 

purchased by Lura W. Watkins from the niece of a 

workman at the Company. 

Ex-collection: Lura W. Watkins, to 1945. 

Published: Cambridge Glass, plate 60-A. 

Lent by The Brooklyn Museum (ace. no. 45.143-35). 

249. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 2% inches. Blown and cut, clear glass enclos- 
ing spray of millefiori flowers with green leaves. Sur- 
face cut with lozenge-shape facets. 
About 1865. 

Ex-collection: Edwin Atlee Barber, to 1916. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 17.512). 

250. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 3 l /n inches. Blown and cut, flower with red 
petals, gold stamens, green leaves and stem. Sur- 
face cut into triangular facets. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company, About 
1870. 

Ex-collection: Evangeline H. Bergstrom. 
Lent by John Nelson Bergstrom Art Center (ace. no. 
498). 

251. PAPERWEIGHT 

Diam. 314 inches. Blown, clear glass enclosing yel- 
low rose and green leaves. 

New England Glass Company, or Whitall, Tatum and 
Company, Millville, N. J. About 1870. 
Ex-collection: C. J. Wilcox, Toledo, Ohio. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art (ace. no. 27.101). 

252. PAPERWEIGHT 

Length 3% inches. Pressed, clear glass, reproduc- 
tion of Plymouth Rock. Pressed on rim of base: "A 
ROCK IN THE WILDERNESS WELCOMED OUR SIRES 



77 



/FROM BONDAGE FAR OVER THE DARK ROLLING 
SEA./ON THAT HOLY ALTAR THEY KINDLED THE 
FIRES/JEHOVAH WHICH GLOW IN OUR BOSOMS 
FOR THEE." Inscribed above this description on edge 
of paperweight: MARY CHILTON WAS THE FIRST TO 
LAND UPON THE ROCK DEC. 21, 1620. PILGRIM 
ROCK TRADEMARK PROVIDENCE INKSTAND CO. 
1876. 

New England Glass Company or Providence Inkstand 
Company, Providence, Rhode Island. About 1876- 
1888. 

Such paperweights, according to Lura W. Watkins in 
Cambridge Glass, were made by the Company. Two 
other sizes are known. Perhaps they were manu- 
factured by the Company for The Providence Ink- 
stand Company, who held the trademark on this 
design. 

Ex-collection: Evangeline H. Bergstrom. 
Published: E. H. Bergstrom, Old Glass Paperweights, 
New York, 1948, pp. 119-120, p+ate 80. 
Lent by John Nelson Bergstrom Art Center (ace. no. 
292). 

ART GLASS 

253. PITCHER 

Ht. 9y 2 inches. Blown, clouded clear shaded to pink, 

applied reeded handle in amber, band of gold 

enamel at rim. 

Attributed to New England Glass Company. About 

1880-1888. 

This pitcher may have been an experimental piece, 

an attempt to develop a new color, or intended as 

an Amberina example that was improperly heated. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Damon E. Hall (Isabel Leighton) 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Sampson. 

254. PLATE 

Diam. 13-15/16 inches. Pressed with painted 
decoration, opaque white with arabesque and car- 
touche in red, gold, tan, yellow enamels, portrait 
of Henry W. Longfellow (1807-1882) in center. 
About 1882-1888. 

Ex-collection: Edward Drummond Libbey, to 1925. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Edward 
Drummond Libbey, 1925 (ace. no. 25.50). 

255. JAR WITH COVER 

Ht. 8y a inches. Blown and pattern molded, amber 

shaded to ruby, diamond pattern on bowl and 

cover, faceted finial. Amberina. Marked with paper 

label on pontil: NEGW/AMBERINA/PAT'D/JULY 24 

1883 

About 1883-1888. 

Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift of 

Mrs. E. W. Miles, 1946 (ace. no. 46.140.483). 

256. DECANTER 

Ht. 9% inches. Blown and pattern molded, amber 
shaded to ruby, swirled pattern of 26 ribs. Amberina. 
About 1883-1888. 

Ex-collection: Mrs. Charles Woodside, Lura W. Wat- 
kins and George S. McKearin. 
Published: American Glass, plate 217, no. 6 

Two Hundred Years of American Blown 

Glass, plate 99, no 4. 



Lent by The Corning Museum of Glass (ace. no. 
50.4.336). 

257. BASKET 

Ht. 7Vi inches. Diam. 7 inches. Blown and pattern 
molded, amber shaded to ruby, gaffered rim of eight 
points, applied twisted and reeded handle. Amberina. 
About 1883-1888. 

Published: Toledo Museum of Art, Art in Crystal, 
1951, p. 5. 

Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Owens- 
Illinois Glass Company, 1951 (ace. no. 51.198). 

258. PITCHER 

Ht. 12*4 inches. Blown and pattern molded, amber 
and ruby glass, applied handle. Amberina. 
About 1883-1888. 
Ex-collection: W. S. Walbridge 

Marie Walbridge Greenhalgh 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Marie W. 
Greenhalgh, 1958 (ace. no. 58.64). 

259. BUTTER DISH WITH COVER 

Ht. 5% inches. Diam. (plate) 8% inches. Blown 
and pattern molded, amber shaded to ruby, ex- 
panded diamond in plate and cover, applied loop 
handle, gaffered plate edge. Amberina. 
About 1883-1888. 

Published: Woman's Day, August 1961, p. 31. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Henry 
Hess, 1951 (ace. no. 51.331). 

260. MUG 

Ht. 5-11/16 inches. Blown and cut, amber shaded 
to ruby, cut in Russian pattern, applied amber 
handle cut in facets, base star cut. Amberina. 
About 1883-1888. 
Published: Spinning Wheel, March 1957, p. 26. 

A. C. Revi, Nineteenth Century Glass, 

p. 19. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of the 
Owens-Illinois Glass Company (ace. no. 51.201). 

261. VASE 

Ht. A l / 2 inches. Width 1% inches. Pressed, amber 
shaded to ruby, four sides, crane or stork standing 
on one leg, water plants on other sides, scalloped 
rim. Amberina. 

Design patented by Joseph Locke. About 1884-1888. 
Joseph Locke (1846-1936) was trained in England 
where he became a specialist in cameo cutting and 
engraving on glass. He joined the Company in 1883 
and moved to Toledo in 1888 after the works were 
closed. His inventions and glass patents are num- 
erous. 
Lent by Miss Dorothy-Lee Jones. 

262. VASE 

Ht. 9 inches. Blown and cut, opaque white over 
ruby, floral design of orchid spray in white, cut in 
cameo technique, border of white at rim and edge 
of base. 

Attributed to Joseph Locke. About 1885. 
Published: A. C. Revi, Nineteenth Century Glass, Its 

Genesis and Development, N.Y., 1959, 

p. 139, repr. 

W. E. Fairfield, Fire and Sand, Cleveland, 



78 



1960, p. 5. 

Antiques, July 1960, p. 59. 

Toledo Museum News, Summer 1961, 

p. 70. 

Woman's Day, August 1961, p. 30. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Owens- 
llinois Glass Company, 1951 (ace. no. 51.203). 

263. VASE 

Ht. 4% inches. Blown and cut, opaque white over 
sapphire blue cut in cameo technique, four bands 
of white on neck, morning glories on bowl, one 

Attributed to Joseph Locke. About 1885-1888. 
Ex-collection: William F. Donovan. 
Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

264. SUGAR BOWL 

Ht. 4 inches. Diam. 5^ inches. Blown and pattern 

molded, amber, acid etched except for gaffered rim 

and applied petal-like feet, frieze of flowers and 

foliage in iridescent blue and amber, incised outlines 

and veins. Pomona. 

About 1885-1888. 

Published: Antiques, March 1959, p. 295. 

Toledo Museum News, vol. 4, no. 3, 

Summer 1961, p. 70. 
Ex-collection: W. S. Walbridge 

Marie Walbridge Greenhalgh 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Marie W. 
Greenhalgh, 1958 (ace. no. 58.68). 

265. PITCHER 

Ht. 2% inches. Blown and pattern molded, amber, 
acid etched except for rim and applied handle, 
frieze of flowers and foliage in iridescent blue and 
amber, incised outline and veins. Pomona. 
About 1885-1888. 
Published: Toledo Museum of Art, Art in Crystal, 

1951, p. 5. 

W. E. Fairfield, Fire and Sand, Cleveland, 

1960, p. 12. 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Owens- 
Illinois Glass Company, 1951 (ace. no. 51.206). 

266. VASE 

Ht. 6y 2 inches. Diam. 3-13/16 inches. Blown and 
pattern molded, clear, acid etched except for rim, 
flower and foliage frieze with incised outline and 
veins. Pomona. 
About 1885-1888. 

This vase is part of a set. Pomona glass generally is 
light amber, although this unusual piece is clear. 
Ex-collection: William F. Donovan. 
Lent by Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 

267. TUMBLER 

Ht. 3% inches. Diam. 2y 2 inches. Blown and mold 
blown, opalescent plated with amber to ruby shad- 
ing, nine vertical ribs. Plated Amberina. 
About 1886-1888. 

Plated Amberina was patented June 15, 1886, by 
E. D. Libbey. Opal glass, cased or plated with the 
heat-sensitive Amberina metal, was reheated to 
produce the delicate coloring. 
Ex-collection: Mr. and Mrs. Joseph W. Limric. 
Lent by The Bennington Museum. 



268. BOWL 

Ht. 414 inches. Diam. 9% inches. Blown and pat- 
tern molded, amber, gaffered rim, acid etched except 
for rim and scalloped foot, frieze of flowers and 
foliage in iridescent blue and amber, frieze outlined 
and veined with incised lines. Pomona. 
About 1886. 

Lent by The Smithsonian Institution, gift of M. W. 
Beveridge, 1886 (ace. no. 96664). 

269. VASE 

Ht. 8V4 inches. Blown, bulbous body with thin neck, 

cream-white shaded to rose. Wild Rose (Peach 

Blow). Marked on base with paper label: WILD 

ROSE/N.E.G.W. PATD, MARCH 2, 1886. 

About 1886-1888. 

Ex-collection: George S. McKearin. 

Published: American Glass, plate 215, no. 1. 

Two Hundred Years of American Blown 

Glass, plate 99, no. 2. 
Lent by The Corning Museum of Glass (ace. no. 
50.4.327). 

270. PAIR OF VASES 

Ht. HVi inches. Blown, pale ivory shaded to deep 

rose, mat finish, spool shape necks and oval bodies. 

Wild Rose (Peach Blow). 

About 1886-1888. 

Ex-collection: William F. Donovan 

Mrs. Dorothy Donovan Farrell 
Lent by The Toledo Museum of Art, gift of Mrs. 
D. D. Farrell, 1950 (ace. no. 50.284, 50.285). 

271. VASE 

Ht. 7% inches. Blown, opaque white with pink 
shading, trumpet shape with gaffered rim, circular 
foot, mottled blue and amber stains. Agata. 
About 1887-1888. 
Lent by Mrs. Grace R. Miller. 

272. PITCHER 

Ht. 8% inches. Mold blown in three part mold, 
opaque white with green stained leaves, kernels of 
corn in vertical rows with leaves on lower half of 
body, applied handle. Maize. 

Probably New England Glass Company, perhaps 
Libbey Glass Company. 1888-1889. 
The Libbey Glass Company opened in Toledo, Ohio, 
in August, 1888. The first Maize glass was advertised 
for sale in the Pottery and China Reporter, 1889, 
when 21 separate items were illustrated. It is 
thought that the New England Glass Company pro- 
duced some examples of Maize before ceasing oper- 
ations in East Cambridge. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 

273. BUTTER DISH AND COVER 

Ht. 6V2 inches. Diam. 7V4 inches. Pressed in three 
part mold, cream with light blue stained leaves, 
kernels of corn in vertical rows on cover exterior 
and interior of plate rim, finial shaped as ear of 
corn. Maize. 

Probably New England Glass Company, perhaps 
Libbey Glass Company. 1888-1889. 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Milton C. Zink. 



79 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Anon., "Early Glassmaking in East Cambridge, Mass.," Old Time New England, XIX, January 1929, pp. 113- 
122. 

Bergstrom, E. H., Old Glass Paperweights, New York, 1940. 

Brothers, J. Stanley, "American Opaque Milk Glass," Thumbnail Sketches, 1940, pp. 20-21. 
Brothers, J. Stanley, "American Ornamental Glass," Antiques, August 1934, pp. 57-59. 
Daniel, Dorothy, Cut and Engraved Glass, 1771-1905, New York, 1950. 
Daniel, Dorothy, "New England Glass in Toledo," Antiques, April 1952, pp. 328-331. 

Gaffield, Thomas, Glass Journals, I (1858-1864); II (1864-1874); III (1874-1887); IV (1887-1894); Un- 
published Mss., M.I.T. Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Gaffield, Thomas, Scrapbooks, Ml, M.I.T. Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Jarves, Deming, Reminiscences of Glass-making, 2nd edition, New York, 1865. 
Kamm, M. W., Encyclopedia of Antique Pattern Glass, 2 Vols., Watkins Glen, N. Y., 1961. 
Lee, Ruth W., "Overlay, Stained and Flashed Glass," Antiques, May 1951, pp. 384-386. 
Lee, Ruth W., "Peach Blow Glass," Antiques, August 1933, pp. 48-50. 

Lee, Ruth W. and Rose, James H., American Glass Cup Plates, Northborough, Massachusetts, 1948. 
McKearin, George and Helen, American Glass, New York, 1956. 

McKearin, George and Helen, Two Hundred Years of American Blown Glass, Garden City, New York, 1950. 
McKearin, Helen, "New England Glass Company Invoices," Antiques, September 1947, Part I, pp. 174- 
179; October 1947, Part II, pp. 275-277; December 1947, Part III, pp. 446-448. 
MacManus, Theodore F., A Century of Glass Manufacture, Toledo, 1918. 

Neal, L. W. and D. B., Pressed Glass Salt Dishes of the Lacy Period, 1825-1850, Philadelphia, 1962. 
Revi, A. O, Nineteenth Century Glass, Its Genesis and Development, New York, 1959. 
Rose, James H., The Story of American Pressed Glass of the Lacy Period, 1825-1850, Corning Museum of 
Glass, Corning, New York, June 21 - September 15, 1954. 

Watkins, Lura W., "American Silvered Glass," Antiques, October 1942, pp. 183-186. 
Watkins, Lura W., "An Antecedent of Three-Mold Glass," Antiques, August 1939, pp. 68-70. 
Watkins, Lura W., Cambridge Glass, 1818-1888, Boston 1930. 

Watkins, Lura W., "Deming Jarves and the Pressing of Glass," Antiques, October 1931, pp. 218-220. 
Watkins, Lura W., "Early Glass Pressing at Cambridge and Sandwich," Antiques, October 1935, Part I, 
pp. 151-152; December 1935, Part II, pp. 242-243. 

Watkins, Lura W., "Glassmaking in South Boston," Antiques, September 1945, pp. 140-143. 
Watkins, Lura W., "New England Glass Company," The Early American Glass Club Bulletin, Vol 44, Jan- 
uary 1958, pp. 5-7. 

Watkins, Lura W., "Shaded Glass of the Massachusetts Glasshouses," Antiques, July 1935, pp. 19-21. 
Weeks, J. D., Directory of the Glass Works of the United States, Washington, D.C., 1880. 



80 




TOLEDO'S GLASS HERITAGE 

THE NEW ENGLAND GLASS COMPANY, 
5S 18184888. jj 

You and your friends are cordially invited to attend 

the Members' Preview and Opening, 

Thursday evening 'November 7, 1963, at 8:30 o'clock 

Alice Winchester 

Editor of ANTIQUES magazine 

will be our guest speaker 

The galleries are open from 7:30 o'clock 

Refreshments will be served 

38